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BACKGROUND Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a Pavlovian paradigm that involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Animal studies have shown that binge consumption of alcohol during pregnancy impairs EBC and that this impairment is likely mediated by a loss of neurons in the(More)
Directional asymmetry, the systematic differences between the left and right body sides, is widespread in human populations. Changes in directional asymmetry are associated with various disorders that affect craniofacial development. Because facial dysmorphology is a key criterion for diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the question arises whether in(More)
BACKGROUND Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Impairment of EBC has been demonstrated in studies of alcohol-exposed animals and in children exposed prenatally at heavy levels. METHODS Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was diagnosed by(More)
BACKGROUND Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children exposed to alcohol in utero. METHODS Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the neural correlates of number processing in 15 right-handed, 8- to 12-year-old children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS) and 18 right-handed, age- and(More)
We report a new disorder with diverse neurological problems resulting from abnormal brainstem function. Consistent features of this disorder, which we propose should be called the Atabascan brainstem dysgenesis syndrome, include horizontal gaze palsy, sensorineural deafness, central hypoventilation, and developmental delay. Other features seen in some(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a common spectrum of developmental disabilities, sharing deficits in social interactions, communication and restricted interests or repetitive behaviors with difficult transitions. In this article, we review the history of the identification and classification of autism and the origin of the now widely-debunked(More)
BACKGROUND Both executive function deficits and slower processing speed are characteristic of children with fetal alcohol exposure, but the temporal dynamics of neural activity underlying cognitive processing deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder have rarely been studied. To this end, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the nature of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the population-based epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in towns representative of the general population of central Italy. METHODS Slightly revised U.S. Institute of Medicine diagnostic methods were used among children in randomly-selected schools near Rome. Consented(More)
Stereo-photogrammetry provides a low cost, easy to use, and noninvasive alternative to traditional facial anthropometry for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). We describe such a system for use in obtaining 3-D facial information in infants. The infant is photographed using three high resolution digital cameras simultaneously while seated in a(More)