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1. 3H-gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) release elicited by a depolarizing K+ stimulus or by noradrenergic transmitter was examined in rat pineals in vitro. 2. The release of 3H-GABA was detectable at a 20 mM K+ concentration in medium and increased steadily up to 80 mM K+. 3. In a Ca2+-free medium 3H-GABA release elicited by 30 mM K+, but not that elicited by(More)
Stress and immune activation are associated with increases in plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CS). To determine whether the catecholaminergic innervation of neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is involved in these responses, selective lesions were made using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Injection of 6-OHDA into the PVN depleted(More)
The effect of tau-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on pineal norepinephrine (NE) release was examined in vitro in the rat pineal gland. Exposure of pineal explants previously loaded with 3H-NE to 1-100 microM GABA caused a dose-dependent decrease of 3H-NE release triggered by 60 mM K+, with a threshold GABA concentration of 1 microM and IC50 of about 10 microM. The(More)
Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires the generation of cell-mediated immunity. We investigated the expression and role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, molecules known to modulate T cell activation, in the regulation of IFN-gamma production and lytic degranulation during human tuberculosis. We demonstrated that(More)
GABA is present in the pineal gland of several mammals, where it is synthesized in situ as well as taken up from the circulation. This article reviews available information suggesting a local, physiological role of pineal GABA. Both the pinealocytes and the glial pineal cells have the capacity to take up GABA from the extracellular space. The GABA(More)
Monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) migrate across cytokine (interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) activated endothelium or unstimulated endothelium in response to chemotactic factors in vitro and in vivo utilizing the CD11/CD18 (i.e., beta 2 integrin) adhesion molecule complex. However, in vivo studies have suggested that under some(More)
The effect of melatonin injection on norepinephrine (NE) turnover rate in rat pineal gland was estimated from the decline of tissue NE levels after the injection of the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The administration of a single injection of 300 micrograms/Kg of melatonin at the beginning of the scotophase induced, 3 hr later, a(More)
Acute superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) induces in the rat a supraliminal release of neurotransmitter in the innervated tissues (i.e., thyroid gland). This temporary adrenergic hyperactivity is correlated with a significant depression of the thyroid economy resembling the nonthyroidal illness (NTI) syndrome in the rat, and suggest that the sympathetic(More)
RATIONALE Human secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) displays bactericidal activity against pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus. Furthermore, it has been reported that murine SLPI shows potent antimycobacterial activity. OBJECTIVES The aim of the present study was to investigate whether human recombinant SLPI not only kills(More)
The neurochemical and endocrine responses to inoculation of mice with the murine lymphoma cell line AW5E was studied. This cell line was chosen because it is NK cell lysis resistant and thus does not induce a normal immune response. Immune activation has long been known to be a potent stimulator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well(More)