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The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents a molecular target in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation with potent transforming activity. In a pivotal phase 1 clinical trial, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, and on the pharmacodynamics. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN One hundred and three Japanese patients with malignant lymphoma or breast cancer treated with cyclophosphamide (500-750(More)
UNLABELLED BRAF mutations occur in 10-15% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) and confer adverse outcome. While RAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib (PLX4032) have proven effective in BRAF mutant melanoma, they are surprisingly ineffective in BRAF mutant CRCs, and the reason for this disparity remains unclear. Compared to BRAF mutant melanoma cells, BRAF mutant CRC(More)
Amplification and overexpression of the miR-17-92 microRNAs (miRNA) cluster at 13q31.3 has recently reported, with pointers to functional involvement in the development of B-cell lymphomas and lung cancers. In the present study, we show that inhibition of miR-17-5p and miR-20a with antisense oligonucleotides (ONs) can induce apoptosis selectively in lung(More)
Targeted therapies have demonstrated efficacy against specific subsets of molecularly defined cancers. Although most patients with lung cancer are stratified according to a single oncogenic driver, cancers harbouring identical activating genetic mutations show large variations in their responses to the same targeted therapy. The biology underlying this(More)
Cancers with specific genetic mutations are susceptible to selective kinase inhibitors. However, there is a wide spectrum of benefit among cancers harboring the same sensitizing genetic mutations. Herein, we measured apoptotic rates among cell lines sharing the same driver oncogene following treatment with the corresponding kinase inhibitor. There was a(More)
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) remarkably decreases the quality of life of EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients. In contrast to the lesions outside the central nervous system (CNS), molecular mechanisms of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in CNS lesions including LMC are largely unknown. In this study, we established an in vivo imaging model(More)
KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene, yet no effective targeted therapies exist for KRAS mutant cancers. We developed a pooled shRNA-drug screen strategy to identify genes that, when inhibited, cooperate with MEK inhibitors to effectively treat KRAS mutant cancer cells. The anti-apoptotic BH3 family gene BCL-XL emerged as a top hit through this(More)
BIM (BCL2L11) is a BH3-only proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. BIM upregulation is required for apoptosis induction by EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) in EGFR-mutant forms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Notably, a BIM deletion polymorphism occurs naturally in 12.9% of East Asian individuals, impairing the(More)
Sorafenib is a novel oral multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf serine/threonine and receptor tyrosine kinases, and inhibits tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We have conducted a phase I study of sorafenib to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and potential efficacy of this agent in 31 Japanese patients with advanced refractory(More)