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Fear can be acquired vicariously through social observation of others suffering from aversive stimuli. We found that mice (observers) developed freezing behavior by observing other mice (demonstrators) receive repetitive foot shocks. Observers had higher fear responses when demonstrators were socially related to themselves, such as siblings or mating(More)
Although the primary cellular targets of many anticancer agents have been identified, less is known about the processes leading to the selective cell death of cancer cells or the molecular basis of drug resistance. p53-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used to examine systematically the requirement for p53 in cellular sensitivity and resistance to(More)
The therapeutic responsiveness of genetically defined tumors expressing or devoid of the p53 tumor suppressor gene was compared in immunocompromised mice. Tumors expressing the p53 gene contained a high proportion of apoptotic cells and typically regressed after treatment with gamma radiation or adriamycin. In contrast, p53-deficient tumors treated with the(More)
Activated ras genes transform REF52 cells only at low frequencies and adenovirus early region 1A collaborates with ras oncogenes to convert REF52 cells to a tumorigenic phenotype. While failure to transform did not result from an absence of ras gene expression, E1A appeared to enhance expression of transfected ras genes by approximately tenfold. However,(More)
The polyoma virus middle-T and the T24 Harvey ras1 genes are individually unable to transform primary baby rat kidney cells. Adenovirus early region 1A provides functions required by these genes to transform primary cells following DNA-mediated gene transfer. These results suggest that separate establishment and transforming functions are required for(More)
H2-M is a nonconventional major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule that has been implicated in the loading of peptides onto conventional class II molecules. We generated mice with a targeted mutation in the H2-Ma gene, which encodes a subunit for H2-M. Although the mutant mice express normal class II cell surface levels, these are(More)
BACKGROUND Cell-permeant Cre DNA site-specific recombinases provide an easily controlled means to regulate gene structure and function in living cells. Since recombination provides a stable and unambiguous record of protein uptake, the enzyme may also be used for quantitative studies of cis- and trans-acting factors that influence the delivery of proteins(More)
The high-mobility-group (HMG) SSRP1 protein is a member of a conserved chromatin-remodeling complex (FACT/DUF/CP) implicated in DNA replication, basal and regulated transcription, and DNA repair. To assist in the functional analysis of SSRP1, the Ssrp1 gene was targeted in murine embryonic stem cells, and the mutation was introduced into the germ line.(More)
BACKGROUND Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and rely upon the host cell for different steps in their life cycles. The characterization of cellular genes required for virus infection and/or cell killing will be essential for understanding viral life cycles, and may provide cellular targets for new antiviral therapies. RESULTS A gene entrapment(More)
Gene trap vectors developed for genome-wide mutagenesis can be used to study factors governing the expression of exons inserted throughout the genome. For example, entrapment vectors consisting of a partial 3'-terminal exon [i.e. a neomycin resistance gene (Neo), a poly(A) site, but no 3' splice site] were typically expressed following insertion into(More)