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Fear can be acquired vicariously through social observation of others suffering from aversive stimuli. We found that mice (observers) developed freezing behavior by observing other mice (demonstrators) receive repetitive foot shocks. Observers had higher fear responses when demonstrators were socially related to themselves, such as siblings or mating(More)
Although the primary cellular targets of many anticancer agents have been identified, less is known about the processes leading to the selective cell death of cancer cells or the molecular basis of drug resistance. p53-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used to examine systematically the requirement for p53 in cellular sensitivity and resistance to(More)
p53-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used to establish a direct mechanism of tumor suppression by p53 involving the destruction of oncogene-expressing cells by apoptosis. The absence of p53 enhanced cell growth, appeared sufficient for immortalization, and allowed a single oncogene [adenovirus early region 1A (E1A)] to transform cells to a(More)
Protein arginine N-methyltransferases have been implicated in a variety of processes, including cell proliferation, signal transduction, and protein trafficking. In this study, we have characterized essentially a null mutation induced by insertion of the U3betaGeo gene trap retrovirus into the second intron of the mouse protein arginine N-methyltransferase(More)
The therapeutic responsiveness of genetically defined tumors expressing or devoid of the p53 tumor suppressor gene was compared in immunocompromised mice. Tumors expressing the p53 gene contained a high proportion of apoptotic cells and typically regressed after treatment with gamma radiation or adriamycin. In contrast, p53-deficient tumors treated with the(More)
The gene FUS (also known as TLS (for translocated in liposarcoma) and hnRNP P2) is translocated with the gene encoding the transcription factor ERG-1 in human myeloid leukaemias. Although the functions of wild-type FUS are unknown, the protein contains an RNA-recognition motif and is a component of nuclear riboprotein complexes. FUS resembles a(More)
Oncogenic transformation by human adenoviruses requires early regions 1A and 1B (E1A and E1B) and provides a model of multistep carcinogenesis. This study shows that the metabolic stabilization of p53 observed in adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-transformed cells can occur in untransformed cells expressing E1A alone. Stabilized p53 was localized to the nucleus and was(More)
The present study characterized a mutation in the Eck receptor tyrosine kinase gene induced by the U3betageo gene trap retrovirus. The mutation (eck(i)) was identified during an in vitro screen for proviruses that disrupt developmentally regulated genes in cultured ES cells. The germ-line eck(i) fusion gene was expressed in blastocyst and later restricted(More)
A gene has been characterized that is required for postimplantation mouse development. The gene, designated fug1, was disrupted in embryonic stem cells by the U3Neo gene trap retrovirus, and the disrupted allele was introduced into the germ line. Homozygous mutant embryos arrest at the egg cylinder stage at about embryonic day 6 and are mostly resorbed by(More)
Regions of the adenovirus type 5 early region 1A (E1A) proteins that are required for transformation were defined by using a series of deletion mutants. Deletion mutations collectively spanning the entire protein-coding region of E1A were constructed and assayed for their ability to cooperate with an activated ras oncogene to induce transformation in(More)