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Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more(More)
In Xenopus laevis embryos, the Wingless/Wnt-1 subclass of Wnt molecules induces axis duplication, whereas the Wnt-5A subclass does not. This difference could be explained by distinct signal transduction pathways or by a lack of one or more Wnt-5A receptors during axis formation. Wnt-5A induced axis duplication and an ectopic Spemann organizer in the(More)
BACKGROUND Lung adenocarcinomas from patients who respond to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) or erlotinib (Tarceva) usually harbor somatic gain-of-function mutations in exons encoding the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Despite initial responses, patients eventually progress by unknown mechanisms of "acquired"(More)
  • Jeffrey D Sachs, John F Kennedy, Dyna Arhin-Tenkorang, Hope Steele, November, Isher Judge +16 others
  • 2001
" …let me say that I hope we keep our voice clear and strong on the central task of raising the health of the poor. I can be 'realistic' and 'cynical' with the best of them—giving all the reasons why things are too hard to change. We must dream a bit, not beyond the feasible but to the limits of the feasible, so that we inspire. I think that we are an(More)
Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers. The prospect of targeted therapies and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis(More)
BACKGROUND Somatic mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are found in adenocarcinomas of the lung and are associated with sensitivity to the kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva). Lung adenocarcinomas also harbor activating mutations in the downstream GTPase, KRAS, and mutations in EGFR and KRAS appear(More)
Soft-tissue sarcomas, which result in approximately 10,700 diagnoses and 3,800 deaths per year in the United States, show remarkable histologic diversity, with more than 50 recognized subtypes. However, knowledge of their genomic alterations is limited. We describe an integrative analysis of DNA sequence, copy number and mRNA expression in 207 samples(More)
This week an international panel announces a list of 14 Grand Challenges in Global Health, and scientists throughout the world will be invited to submit grant proposals to pursue them with funds provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. We describe the characteristics of these challenges and the process by which they were formulated and selected(More)
We have examined the subcellular localiza-tion of p60 ~-~ in mammalian fibroblasts. Analysis of indirect immunofluorescence by three-dimensional optical sectioning microscopy revealed a granular cyto-plasmic staining that co-localized with the microtubule organizing center. Immunofluorescence experiments with antibodies against a number of membrane markers(More)