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Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is homologous to the product of the Drosophila gene shaggy (zeste-white 3), which is required for signalling by wingless during Drosophila development. To test whether GSK-3 is also involved in vertebrate pattern formation, its role was investigated during early Xenopus development. It was found that dominant-negative(More)
Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more(More)
The gag-pol protein of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), the precursor to the enzymes responsible for reverse transcription and integration, is expressed from two genes that lie in different translational reading frames by ribosomal frameshifting. Here, we localize the site of frameshifting and show that the frameshifting reaction is mediated by slippage of two(More)
Based on precedents from other retroviruses, the precursor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase is predicted to be a polyprotein with a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 160,000 (160K) encoded by both the viral pol gene and the upstream gag gene. These two genes lie in different translational reading frames, with the 3' end of gag(More)
BACKGROUND Lung adenocarcinomas from patients who respond to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) or erlotinib (Tarceva) usually harbor somatic gain-of-function mutations in exons encoding the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Despite initial responses, patients eventually progress by unknown mechanisms of "acquired"(More)
Frizzled polypeptides are integral membrane proteins that recently were shown to function as receptors for Wnt signaling molecules. Here, we report the identification of a novel, secreted 36-kDa protein that contains a region homologous to a putative Wnt-binding domain of Frizzleds. This protein, called Frizzled-related protein (FRP), was first identified(More)
In Xenopus laevis embryos, the Wingless/Wnt-1 subclass of Wnt molecules induces axis duplication, whereas the Wnt-5A subclass does not. This difference could be explained by distinct signal transduction pathways or by a lack of one or more Wnt-5A receptors during axis formation. Wnt-5A induced axis duplication and an ectopic Spemann organizer in the(More)
Soft-tissue sarcomas, which result in approximately 10,700 diagnoses and 3,800 deaths per year in the United States, show remarkable histologic diversity, with more than 50 recognized subtypes. However, knowledge of their genomic alterations is limited. We describe an integrative analysis of DNA sequence, copy number and mRNA expression in 207 samples(More)