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It has been shown that abused solvents, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) and toluene, share certain pharmacological properties with central nervous system depressants, such as alcohol and anesthetic vapors. Several vapors were tested for diazepam (DZ)- and phencyclidine (PCP)-like discriminative stimulus effects to further explore their pharmacological(More)
RATIONALE There is little comparative information on the qualitative similarity, relative potency and reinforcing effects of oral cocaine versus cocaine administered via other routes. METHODS The present study used a within-subject, double-blind, double-dummy design to compare the physiological, subjective and reinforcing effects of placebo and oral(More)
The discriminative stimulus effects of GABAergic drugs were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate the direct GABA(A) agonist, muscimol (1.0 mg/kg I.P.), from saline under a two-lever fixed ratio (FR) 32 schedule of food reinforcement. Another direct GABA(A) agonist, THIP, produced full substitution for muscimol, however, at doses producing response rate(More)
Memantine (MEM) is currently in clinical use in Europe for the treatment of various neurological disorders. It is a low-affinity channel blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors whose voltage-dependent, rapid binding kinetics are believed to limit its phencyclidine (PCP)-like side effects. MEM, and its analog amantadine (AMA), which has also been(More)
RATIONALE Although the behavioral, subjective, and physiological effects of oral cocaine have been investigated, its reinforcing effects have not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE The primary aims of this study were to examine the reinforcing effects of oral cocaine and determine whether such effects can be influenced by manipulating behavioral requirements(More)
The subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered cocaine and nicotine were compared in 10 cigarette-smoking cocaine abusers. Subjects abstained from smoking at least 8 h before each session. Under double blind conditions, subjects received placebo, cocaine (10, 20, and 40 mg/70 mg), or nicotine (0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mg/70 kg) in mixed order.(More)
The discriminative stimulus properties of ibogaine were investigated in rats trained to discriminate phencyclidine (PCP; 2.0 mg/kg, I.P.) from saline under a two-lever fixed-ratio (FR) 32 schedule of food reinforcement. Ibogaine (5.6-17.6 mg/kg, I.P.) showed a complete lack of substitution. Ibogaine (0.5-4.0 mg/kg, I.M.) also failed to generalize in rhesus(More)
The multiple risks associated with methamphetamine use are of serious concern for women. These risks and consequences are magnified during pregnancy. This secondary analysis of a parent study compared 26 pregnant to 356 nonpregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, on selected demographic, psychosocial, and HIV-risk domains to identify their treatment(More)
In rodents and other mammals, prenatal stress disrupts both sexual differentiation and sexual behavior. The present study examined the area of the anterior division of the anterior commissure (the Aca) in coronal, thionin-stained sections of prenatally stressed (P-S), and control male and female rats. Pregnant rats were exposed to thrice-daily heat, light,(More)
Scant scientific attention has been given to examining the need for agonist medication dose changes in the postpartum period. Study objectives were: 1) to determine the need for medication dose adjustments in participants stabilized on buprenorphine or methadone 3 weeks before and 4 weeks after delivery, and 2) to evaluate the need for methadone dose(More)