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Studies in both humans and rodents suggest that exercise can be neuroprotective, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are still poorly understood. Three weeks of voluntary, physical activity in rats upregulates prepro-galanin messenger RNA levels in the locus coeruleus. Galanin is a neuropeptide extensively coexisting with norepinephrine that decreases(More)
Chronic post traumatic stress has been described as a "physioneurosis" (Kardiner 1941), that is, a mental disorder with both psychological and physiological components. The behavioral sequelae of inescapable shock in animals and of massive psychic trauma in people show a striking parallel. Inescapable shock in animals leads to both transient catecholamine(More)
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