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Due to fundamental characteristics, routing protocols in wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are particularly vulnerable to attack. One such attack, the "sinkhole" problem, is analyzed in the context of the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol, and a sinkhole intrusion detection system (SIDS) is proposed for detecting it. The design and evaluation of(More)
The natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) at 200 mM increases the extent and the rate of formation of polymerized microtubule (MT) complex caused by tau. TMAO at this concentration has no effect on tubulin alone. Urea at 200 mM blocks tubulin assembly caused by tau, but this inhibition can be reversed by an equal amount of TMAO. Besides TMAO,(More)
Gene transfer to exocrine glands, including the major salivary glands, presents an attractive method to deliver proteins for therapeutic applications. Previous efforts using nonviral gene delivery to these glands have resulted in limited success. In this report, zinc and other divalent transitions were coadministered with plasmid DNA in an effort to improve(More)
Phosphorylation can affect the function of microtubule-associated protein tau. Here, the human brain tau with 441 amino acids was phosphorylated by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. PKA-phosphorylated tau (2.7 mol phosphates/mol) does not promote tubulin assembly as judged by spectrophotometric and atomic force(More)