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Congeners of nitrogen monoxide (NO) are neuroprotective and neurodestructive. To address this apparent paradox, we considered the effects on neurons of compounds characterized by alternative redox states of NO: nitric oxide (NO.) and nitrosonium ion (NO+). Nitric oxide, generated from NO. donors or synthesized endogenously after NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate)(More)
The NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) subclass of glutamate receptor is essential for the synaptic plasticity thought to underlie learning and memory and for synaptic refinement during development. It is currently believed that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is a heteromultimeric channel comprising the ubiquitous NR1 subunit and at least one regionally localized NR2(More)
The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and its signal characteristics were discussed using modern spectral estimation technique. The power spectra density (PSD) was calculated using the auto-regression (AR) model of modern spectra estimation. The Levinson-Durbin recursion method was used to estimate the model parameters which(More)
Angiogenesis is required for a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. The endothelial cell-specific mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mediator of pathological angiogenesis. Also, the expression of VEGF and its two receptors, Flt-1 and Flk-1/KDR, is related to the formation of blood vessels in mouse and rat(More)
Excessive activation of NMDA receptors is thought to mediate the calcium-dependent neurotoxicity associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, trauma, epilepsy, and several neurodegenerative diseases. For this reason, various NMDA antagonists have been investigated for their therapeutic potential in these diseases, but heretofore none have proven to be(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mediator of angiogenesis associated with tumors and other pathological conditions, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The murine anti-human VEGF monoclonal antibody (muMAb VEGF) A.4.6.1 has been shown to potently suppress angiogenesis and growth in a variety(More)
We identified the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lmx1b in the mesencephalic dopamine (mesDA) systems of embryos and adults. Analysis of spatiotemporal expression in Lmx1b null mutants and wild-type mice implicated a cascade involving Lmx1b in the early development of mesDA neurons. Although disruption of this cascade did not block induction of(More)
Dorsal-ventral limb patterning in vertebrates is thought to be controlled by the LIM-homeodomain protein Lmx1b which is expressed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner along the dorsal-ventral limb axis. Here we describe the phenotype resulting from targeted disruption of Lmx1b. Our results demonstrate that Lmx1b is essential for the specification(More)
1. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-activated currents were recorded from dissociated rat retinal ganglion cells using whole-cell recording. The NMDA open-channel blocking drug memantine was evaluated for non-competitive and/or uncompetitive components of antagonism. A rapid superfusion system was used to apply various drugs for kinetic analysis. 2.(More)
During endocytosis, clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, assisted by a variety of accessory factors, help to generate an invaginated bud at the cell membrane. One of these factors is Eps15, a clathrin-coat-associated protein that binds the alpha-adaptin subunit of AP-2. Here we investigate the function of Eps15 by characterizing an important(More)