H Carmichael

Learn More
A study was made of complex usages of language in the spontaneous conversation of 30 4-year-old girls, their mothers and their teachers, at home and at school. There were significant social class differences in frequency, but almost all the usages appeared in the talk of almost all the mothers and children at least once. The working class girls' language(More)
Radio-recordings were made of the conversation of 30 girls, aged just under four, at school with their teachers and at home with their mothers. Half the girls were middle class and half working class. The frequency and type of question asked by the children and the frequency and type of answer given by the adults were analysed. Particular attention was paid(More)
A study was made of the "cognitive demands" made of children during spontaneous conversations with their teachers at nursery school and their mothers at home. Social class differences were small compared with home/school differences. Teachers' talk contained a higher proportion of cognitive demands and "testing" demands than did mothers' talk; however, the(More)
  • 1