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  • H.B. Land
  • 2008
An arc fault is the discharge of electricity through the air between two conductors creating large quantities of heat and light. It is widely accepted that there are many variables which affect the behavior of an arc in real switchboards, and thus, understanding the phenomena is difficult. This paper is based upon the results of several years of arc testing(More)
  • H.B. Land
  • 2008
It is widely recognized that arcing faults in switchboards contain large amounts of power and can create significant damage, including melting switchboards, destroying substations, disabling ships, and causing human fatalities. While arcing faults occur with a fairly high frequency, electricity is so ubiquitous in our lives that most engineers will not(More)
n electrical fi re is reported in the United States every 5 min. Electrical fi res are of even greater concern onboard ships, where the means of escape are limited. Historical data show that major electrical fi res occur on Navy ships at a rate greater than 6 times per year. These fi res damage equipment and place the lives of personnel and the survival of(More)
Marine switchboards are manufactured to specifications similar to industrial switchboards but sustain arcing faults more frequently. Thus, the marine environment can serve to accelerate aging, showing what industrial switchboards will experience over time. U.S. Navy data are used to show that faulty connections are the primary cause of arcing faults in(More)
Taking inspiration from eukaryotic cilia, we report a method for growing dense arrays of magnetically actuated microscopic filaments. Fabricated from the bottom-up assembly of polymer-coated cobalt nanoparticles, each segmented filament measures approximately 5–15 mm in length and 23.5 nm in diameter, which was commensurate with the width of a single(More)
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