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Innate immunity represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important for activation of innate immunity. Moreover, cytokines mediate communication of cells and are necessary to mount an appropriately regulated immune response. However, activation of innate immunity has to be tightly controlled to avoid(More)
During infection, TLR agonists are released and trigger mature as well as differentiating innate immune cells. Early encounter with TLR agonists (R848; LPS) blocks conventional differentiation of CD14(+) monocytes into immature dendritic cells (iDCs) resulting in a deviated phenotype. We and others characterized these APCs (TLR-APC) by a retained expression(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infants can lead to wheezing and early allergic sensitization. In mice, RSV infection enhances allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Dendritic cells are critical in inducing T-cell responses to both viruses and allergens and could be pivotal in regulating interactions(More)
The upper airways are prone to contact with pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic microbes, therefore immune recognition principles have to be tightly controlled. Here we show that human BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells inhibited secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-12 by monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. This inhibitory(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants under 6 months of age. Since an RSV infection does not necessarily prevent a reinfection, we asked whether RSV might subvert an effective immune response by interfering with the function of dendritic cells (DCs). Immature DCs cultured from cord blood stem cells and(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are important sentinels within innate immunity, monitoring the presence of infectious microorganisms. They operate in 2 different maturation stages, with transition from immature to mature DCs being induced by activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, TLRs are also expressed on precursor cells of DCs. Here we analyzed the(More)
CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN) have been shown to exert strong immuno-stimulatory effects through activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9). However, TLR-9 triggering takes place in endosomal compartments and thus CpG-ODN have to be taken up prior to signal transduction. We here report that 3'-poly-guanosine strings can improve cellular internalisation of(More)
Bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major cause of hospitalization in children under 1 years of age. The disease characteristically does not induce protective immunity. However, a mononuclear peribronchiolar and perivascular infiltrate during RSV infection is suggestive of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. Macrophages and(More)
Micromonas (Peptostreptococcus) micros is frequently associated with periodontal disease as well as respiratory, gastrointestinal and female genitourinary tract infections, but only rarely has been reported as a pathogenic agent of prosthetic joint infections. Here we describe a case of a 63-year-old woman with prosthetic joint infection of total hip(More)