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The diversity of microRNAs and small-interfering RNAs has been extensively explored within angiosperms by focusing on a few key organisms such as Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana. A deeper division of the plants is defined by the radiation of the angiosperms and gymnosperms, with the latter comprising the commercially important conifers. The conifers(More)
BACKGROUND DNA sequencing is used ubiquitously: from deciphering genomes to determining the primary sequence of small RNAs (smRNAs). The cloning of smRNAs is currently the most conventional method to determine the actual sequence of these important regulators of gene expression. Typical smRNA cloning projects involve the sequencing of hundreds to thousands(More)
Arginylation is an enzymatic reaction in which arginyl-tRNA protein transferase 1 (ATE1, EC 2.3.2.8) conjugates a single arginyl moiety from aminoacylated tRNA(Arg) onto a target polypeptide. We established arginylation for in vitro labeling of peptides with N-terminal acidic amino acids. Consistent with prior knowledge, arginylated peptides flanked by(More)
Moving past the discovery phase of proteomics, the term targeted proteomics combines multiple approaches investigating a certain set of proteins in more detail. One such targeted proteomics approach is the combination of liquid chromatography and selected or multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM, MRM). SRM-MS requires prior knowledge of the(More)
There is a resurgence of interest in RNA secondary structure prediction problem (a.k.a. the RNA folding problem) due to the discovery of many new families of non-coding RNAs with a variety of functions. The vast majority of the computational tools for RNA secondary structure prediction are based on free energy minimization. Here the goal is to compute a(More)
MicroiRNAs are genome encoded small double stranded RNAs that regulate expression of homologous mRNAs. With approximately 2500 human miRNAs and each having hundreds of potential mRNA targets, miRNA based gene regulation is quite pervasive in both development and disease. While there are numerous studies investigating miRNA:mRNA and miRNA:protein target(More)
Here we present a simple and inexpensive gel-shift assay for the detection and quantification of small RNAs. The assay is at least 5-10 times more sensitive than a conventional Northern, and is highly scalable. Total RNA is first size purified to enrich the desired size range, phosphatase treated, and then radiolabeled to high specific activity using(More)
Small RNAs, defined as noncoding 20-30-nt-long RNAs, are instrumental regulators of cellular processes in most eukaryotes. In this chapter we describe three methods for extracting small RNA from cells: a general method, one plant specific and a third particular to conifers. Further, protocols are given for the analysis and quantification of small RNAs using(More)
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