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It is difficult to mix solutions in microchannels. Under typical operating conditions, flows in these channels are laminar-the spontaneous fluctuations of velocity that tend to homogenize fluids in turbulent flows are absent, and molecular diffusion across the channels is slow. We present a passive method for mixing streams of steady pressure-driven flows(More)
Using slender-body hydrodynamics in the inertialess limit, we examine the motion of Purcell's swimmer, a planar, fore–aft-symmetric three-link flagellum or propulsive mechanism that translates by alternately moving its front and rear segments. Purcell (1976) concluded via symmetry arguments that the net displacement of such a swimmer must follow a straight(More)
The no-slip boundary condition at a solid-liquid interface is at the center of our understanding of fluid mechanics. However, this condition is an assumption that cannot be derived from first principles and could, in theory, be violated. In this chapter, we present a review of recent experimental, numerical and theoretical investigations on the subject. The(More)
This article describes the process of formation of droplets and bubbles in microfluidic T-junction geometries. At low capillary numbers break-up is not dominated by shear stresses: experimental results support the assertion that the dominant contribution to the dynamics of break-up arises from the pressure drop across the emerging droplet or bubble. This(More)
Bacteria frequently live in densely populated surface-bound communities, termed biofilms [1-4]. Biofilm-dwelling cells rely on secretion of extracellular substances to construct their communities and to capture nutrients from the environment [5]. Some secreted factors behave as cooperative public goods: they can be exploited by nonproducing cells [6-11].(More)
The morphological relaxation of faceted crystal surfaces is studied via a continuum approach. Our formulation includes (i) an evolution equation for the surface slope that describes step line tension, g1, and step repulsion energy, g3; and (ii) a condition at the facet edge (a free boundary) that accounts for discrete effects via the collapse times, t(n),(More)
Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar(More)
Double emulsions are highly structured fluids consisting of emulsion drops that contain smaller droplets inside. Although double emulsions are potentially of commercial value, traditional fabrication by means of two emulsification steps leads to very ill-controlled structuring. Using a microcapillary device, we fabricated double emulsions that contained a(More)
Near a solid boundary, Escherichia coli swims in clockwise circular motion. We provide a hydrodynamic model for this behavior. We show that circular trajectories are natural consequences of force-free and torque-free swimming and the hydrodynamic interactions with the boundary, which also leads to a hydrodynamic trapping of the cells close to the surface.(More)
Microfluidic technology offers capabilities for the precise handling of small fluid volumes dispersed as droplets. To fully exploit this potential requires simultaneous generation of multiple size droplets. We demonstrate two methods for passively breaking larger drops into precisely controlled daughter drops using pressure-driven flow in simple(More)