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Health hazards due to smoking may undermine benefits of HIV treatment on morbidity and mortality. Over 40% of persons with HIV are current smokers. Health risks of smoking include increases in some HIV-associated infections, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, bacterial pneumonia and other lung disease, and overall mortality. Proven strategies for smoking(More)
We review the various ways in which telephone counseling has been used in smoking cessation programs. Reactive approaches--help lines or crisis lines--attract only a small percentage of eligible smokers but are sensitive to promotional campaigns. While difficult to evaluate, they appear to be efficacious and useful as a public intervention for large(More)
OBJECTIVES This study is an evaluation of relapse prevention interventions for smokers who quit during pregnancy. METHODS Pregnant smokers at 2 managed care organizations were randomized to receive a self-help booklet only, prepartum relapse prevention, or prepartum and postpartum relapse prevention. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 28 weeks of(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide a comprehensive assessment of smoking prevalence and risks for smoking in an entire population of United States Air Force (USAF) military basic trainees (n = 32,144). DESIGN Population-based survey with every individual entering the USAF enlisted force from August 1995 to August 1996. SETTING USAF Basic Military Training (BMT)(More)
BACKGROUND Early age of initiation is a significant risk factor for long-term dependent smoking and may also relate to other unhealthy behaviors and increased likelihood of illness, independent of duration of smoking. METHODS The current study assessed age of initiation in relation to cigarette dependence, interest in quitting, social environment(More)
AIMS To assess the effects of a smoking cessation program for recovering alcoholics on use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs after discharge from residential treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING A randomized community intervention trial design was employed in which 12 residential drug treatment centers in Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska were matched and then(More)
This study examined predictors of smoking relapse in the year after the mandatory smoking ban during basic military training (BMT) in the U.S. Air Force. Participants were all smokers who completed BMT from August 1995 to August 1996 and relapsed to smoking in the subsequent year (N = 4,303). Results demonstrated that the vast majority of airmen (69.8%)(More)
Tobacco has major adverse consequences for children. Despite its devastating consequences , in countries facing immediate issues of poverty, lack of access to potable water and infectious diseases, tobacco is often viewed as a lower priority health threat. In this editorial, we consider specific areas of harm and suggest some strategies for combating(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the prevalence of occasional smoking in a population of working adults, compared the characteristics of occasional and daily smokers, and prospectively examined the long-term smoking patterns of occasional smokers. METHODS At 32 Minnesota work sites, 5681 randomly selected workers were surveyed at baseline; 5248 of these(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the effect of program format and incentives on participation and cessation in worksite smoking cessation programs. METHODS Twenty-four worksites were randomized to 6 conditions that differed in cessation program format and the use of incentives. Programs were offered for 18 months in each worksite. A total of 2402 cigarette(More)