H. A. Koenig

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A sophisticated mathematical simulation is presented which allows for the consideration of large activations in orthodontic appliances and their effect upon the resulting force systems which are delivered to teeth. Effects of bracket/wire interaction are studied using this new tool. Previous studies of force systems from an ideal arch were redone with the(More)
Vertical loops or modified vertical loops are basically frictionless springs which are used for canine and anterior tooth retraction. The design and selection of a proper loop or retraction spring should be based on a number of scientific criteria. Foremost among these would be a sufficiently high moment-to-force ratio so that root apices are not displaced(More)
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