H A A de Jong

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One group of rats were bred and kept under hypergravity (HG) conditions (2.5 g) in a centrifuge. Another group were bred and kept under normal gravity conditions (1 g). Rats from both groups were dropped from a supine position into a water basin under infrared illumination leaving only gravity (1 g for both groups) for orientation. The airrighting reflex(More)
Gravity represents a stable reference for the nervous system. When the individual is increasing in size and weight, gravity may influence several aspects of the sensory and motor developments. To clarify this role, we studied age-dependent modifications of several exteroceptive and proprioceptive reflexes in five groups of rats conceived, born and reared in(More)
Rats were exposed to a hypergravity (HG) level of 2.5 x g from conception until the age of 14 weeks. The vestibular epithelia of four of these animals and four control animals were immunohistochemically labeled for actin and tubulin. The apical cross-sectional area of epithelial cells of HG exposed rats appeared to be larger in all end organs. Area increase(More)
The relation between prolonged hypergravity and structural adaptation of otoconia was studied in hamsters (n = 56). Three groups of hamsters (n = 27), were conceived and born in a centrifuge: group 1 (n = 10) 1 month under 2.5 G, group 2 (n = 9) 5 months under 2.5 G and 4 months under 1 G, group 3 (n = 8) 1 month under 2.5 G and 8 months under 1 G. Control(More)
The vertebrate vestibular system detects linear (otolith organs) and angular (semicircular canals) acceleration. The function of the otolith system is twofold, 1: perception of linear acceleration of the head, and 2: assessment of the spatial orientation of the head relative to the vector of gravity. Because of the latter function, a change of gravity will(More)
We studied vestibular function in 37 hamsters (1 month old) conceived and born in either hypergravity (n = 21) or normal gravity (n = 16). Four groups were made: (1) HL group: 20 weeks in 2.5 G and 14 weeks in 1 G; (2) HS group: 4 weeks in 2.5 G and 30 weeks in 1 G; (3) CON group: 34 weeks in 1 G; and (4) ROT group: 4 weeks in 1 G, 16 weeks in rotation in 1(More)
BACKGROUND Birds and fish show tumbling and spinning movements when subjected to short periods of weightlessness during parabolic flight. The reason for this behavior is not clear. HYPOTHESIS The semicircular canal system is a rotation-detecting device; however, it seems that linear accelerations have an influence, too. Microgravity induces rotatory(More)
We investigated the effect of prolonged hypergravity on the otoconial layer of the maculae utriculi and the maculae sacculi in hamsters. The animals were placed in a centrifuge under conditions of 2.5 G, and remained there for 6 months. We then determined the calcium contents of the otoconia with energy dispersive X-ray element analysis, and recorded the(More)
How do distributed applications exchange (tree-like) data structures? To this end, we introduce the abstract data type of Annotated Terms (ATerms) and discuss their design, implementation and application. A comprehensive procedural interface enables creation and manipulation of ATerms in C. A Java version is also supported. The ATerm implementation is based(More)
Twenty-four caloric vestibular tests were conducted in 20 test subjects during parabolic flight, in which weightless periods of about 10 seconds were elicited. The caloric nystagmus disappeared completely in all experiments in weightlessness, whereas in the higher G-periods the speed of the nystagmus increased. With regard to the modes of response during(More)