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BACKGROUND Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a disease associated with increased arteriolar resistance in the lungs. Due to hypoxemia, some physiological mechanisms can be posteriorly affected, including respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes, but this has not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to evaluate how these mechanisms were(More)
The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) receives afferent projections from the arterial baroreceptors, carotid chemoreceptors and cardiopulmonary receptors and as a function of this information produces autonomic adjustments in order to maintain arterial blood pressure within a narrow range of variation. The activation of each of these cardiovascular afferents(More)
Vagal cardioinhibition is exerted through a reduction not only in the heart rate but also in the rate of propagation of the cardiac action potential and in myocardial contractility. In several species, such effects can be produced independently by selective activation of ganglia in identified 'fat pads'. In this study we investigate differential control of(More)
The maintenance of arterial pressure at levels adequate to perfuse the tissues is a basic requirement for the constancy of the internal environment and survival. The objective of the present review was to provide information about the basic reflex mechanisms that are responsible for the moment-to-moment regulation of the cardiovascular system. We(More)
The cardioinhibitory effects of cardiac vagal motoneurons (CVMs) are mediated by activation of postganglionic neurons in the epicardial ganglia which have been shown to exert functionally selective effects on heart rate and atrioventricular conduction in the rat. Here we investigate whether CVMs producing these responses may occupy different rostrocaudal(More)
Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides is often accompanied by cardiac complications which may be serious and even fatal. However, the effects of these compounds on the cardiovascular mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a sublethal dose (8 mg/kg, i.p.) of the(More)
Anatomical studies have demonstrated the existence of purinergic P2 receptors in the nucleus ambiguus (NA), a site containing cardiac vagal motoneurons. However, very little is known about the functional role of these receptors in central cardiac vagal regulation. The aims of our study were to evaluate the following: (1) the blood pressure and heart rate(More)
The present study examined the role of the sympathetic system and pulmonary afferent feedback in the baroreflex inhibition by chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) of the anesthetized rat. The baroreflex bradycardia was induced by phenylephrine infusions (PHE, 50 μg/ml/min, i.v.) given either alone or combined with glutamate(More)
Microinjection of L-glutamate into the lateral commissural nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of unanesthetized rats evokes increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and a bradycardia. In a previous study we verified that this increase in MAP is mediated sympathetically because prazosin (i.v.) blocks this response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate(More)
Our previous studies have shown that stimulation of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region of the brain increases atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release, whereas lesions of the AV3V region or median eminence of the tuber cinereum block the release of ANP caused by blood volume expansion. These results suggest that participation of the central(More)