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BACKGROUND Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is widely accepted as an RNA motif recognized as a danger signal by the cellular sentries. However, the biology of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses, or Mononegavirales, is hardly compatible with the production of such dsRNA. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS During measles virus infection, the IFN-beta gene(More)
Because viruses are obligate parasites, numerous partnerships between measles virus and cellular molecules can be expected. At the entry level, measles virus uses at least two cellular receptors, CD150 and a yet to be identified epithelial receptor to which the virus H protein binds. This dual receptor strategy illuminates the natural infection and(More)
During acute measles virus (MV) infection, an efficient immune response occurs, followed by a transient but profound immunosuppression. MV nucleoprotein (MV-N) has been reported to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses and paradoxically to account for immunosuppression. Thus far, this latter activity has been attributed to MV-N binding to human(More)
We demonstrate here that the CD44 molecule, which mediates lymphocyte adhesion to high endothelial venules (HEV), is also involved in the delivery of an activation signal to the T cell. We have produced a CD44 mAb (H90) which is able to block the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. H90 had no effect on [3H]TdR incorporation of whole PBL(More)
In the present report we further explored the role of paf-acether (paf), a phospholipid cytokine, in the modulation of T cell activation induced via the CD2 and the CD3 pathways. Evidence was obtained that paf inhibited T cell proliferation induced by immobilized CD3 mAb (OKT3i), but potentiated that induced by a combination with the CD2 mAb, anti-(T11.1 +(More)
Integrins are a superfamily of related molecules whose function, where known, is to mediate adhesion. The so-called very-late-activation antigen (VLA) family includes at least five distinct heterodimers, each composed of a unique alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a common beta-subunit. Several members of the family have been shown to bind(More)
Measles virus (MV) causes profound immunosuppression, resulting in high infant mortality. The mechanisms are poorly understood, largely due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here, we report that particular MV proteins, in the absence of MV replication, could generate a systemic immunosuppression in mice through two pathways: (1) via MV-nucleoprotein(More)
Measles virus (MV) nucleoprotein (N) is a cytosolic protein that is released into the extracellular compartment after apoptosis and/or secondary necrosis of MV-infected cells in vitro. Thus, MV-N becomes accessible to inhibitory cell-surface receptors: FcgammaRIIB and an uncharacterized nucleoprotein receptor (NR). MV-N is composed of two domains: NCORE (aa(More)
While the antiviral response during measles virus (MeV) infection is documented, the contribution of the hosting cell type to the type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) response is still not clearly established. Here, we report that a signature heterogeneity of the IFN-alpha/beta response according to the cell type. The MeV tropism dictated by the expression of(More)
Measles virus (MV) infection causes acute childhood disease, associated in certain cases with infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and development of neurological disease. To develop a murine model of MV-induced pathology, we generated several lines of transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing as the MV receptor a human CD46 molecule with either a(More)