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BACKGROUND Cranial neural-crest (CNC) cells originate from the lateral edge of the anterior neuroepithelium and migrate to form parts of the peripheral nervous system, muscles, cartilage, and bones of the face. Neural crest-cell migration involves the loss of adhesion from the surrounding neuroepithelium and a corresponding increase in cell adhesion to the(More)
Cell adhesion molecules such as cadherins alternate their expression throughout cranial neural crest (CNC) development, yet our understanding of the role of these molecules during CNC migration remains incomplete. The "mesenchymal" cadherin-11 is expressed in the CNC during migration yet prevents migration when overexpressed in the embryo, suggesting that a(More)
During early embryonic development, cranial neural crest cells emerge from the developing mid- and hindbrain. While numerous studies have focused on integrin involvement in trunk neural crest cell migration, comparatively little is known about mechanisms of cranial neural crest cell migration. We show that fibronectin, but not laminin, vitronectin, or type(More)
ADAMs are membrane-anchored proteases that regulate cell behavior by proteolytically modifying the cell surface and ECM. Like other membrane-anchored proteases, ADAMs contain candidate "adhesive" domains downstream of their metalloprotease domains. The mechanism by which membrane-anchored cell surface proteases utilize these putative adhesive domains to(More)
ADAM19 is a member of the meltrin subfamily of ADAM metalloproteases. In Xenopus, ADAM19 is present as a maternal transcript. Zygotic expression starts during gastrulation and is apparent in the dorsal blastopore lip. ADAM19 expression through neurulation and tailbud formation becomes enriched in dorsal structures such as the neural tube, the notochord and(More)
Since the time of Darwin, biologists have sought to understand the origins and maintenance of life's diversity of form. However, the nature of the exact DNA mutations and molecular mechanisms that result in morphological differences between species remains unclear. Here, we characterize a nonsynonymous mutation in a transcriptional coactivator, limb bud and(More)
We have studied the effect of a dietary supplement with linoleic acid (LA) in 76 patients with MS. We could detect no effect of this supplement on the progression of neurological findings, the relapse rate, or the severity of relapses. We were also able to show that oral supplementation with a linoleic acid preparation would raise the blood level of LA in(More)
The Eph/ephrin signalling pathways have a critical function in cell adhesion and repulsion, and thus play key roles in various morphogenetic events during development. Here we show that a decrease in ephrinB2 protein causes neural tube closure defects during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Such a decrease in ephrinB2 protein levels is observed on the loss of(More)
The digital laminae is a two layer tissue that attaches the distal phalanx to the inner hoof wall, thus suspending the horse's axial skeleton in the hoof capsule. This tissue fails at the epidermal:dermal junction in laminitic horses, causing crippling disease. Basal epithelial cells line the laminar epidermal:dermal junction, undergo physiological change(More)