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BACKGROUND Cranial neural-crest (CNC) cells originate from the lateral edge of the anterior neuroepithelium and migrate to form parts of the peripheral nervous system, muscles, cartilage, and bones of the face. Neural crest-cell migration involves the loss of adhesion from the surrounding neuroepithelium and a corresponding increase in cell adhesion to the(More)
ADAMs are membrane-anchored proteases that regulate cell behavior by proteolytically modifying the cell surface and ECM. Like other membrane-anchored proteases, ADAMs contain candidate "adhesive" domains downstream of their metalloprotease domains. The mechanism by which membrane-anchored cell surface proteases utilize these putative adhesive domains to(More)
Cell adhesion molecules such as cadherins alternate their expression throughout cranial neural crest (CNC) development, yet our understanding of the role of these molecules during CNC migration remains incomplete. The "mesenchymal" cadherin-11 is expressed in the CNC during migration yet prevents migration when overexpressed in the embryo, suggesting that a(More)
During early embryonic development, cranial neural crest cells emerge from the developing mid- and hindbrain. While numerous studies have focused on integrin involvement in trunk neural crest cell migration, comparatively little is known about mechanisms of cranial neural crest cell migration. We show that fibronectin, but not laminin, vitronectin, or type(More)
This review focuses on recent advances in the field of cranial neural crest cell migration in Xenopus laevis with specific emphasis on cell adhesion and the regulation of cell migration. Our goal is to combine the understanding of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix with the regulation of cell-cell adhesion and the involvement of the planar cell(More)
ADAM13 is a member of the disintegrin and metalloprotease protein family that is expressed on cranial neural crest cells surface and is essential for their migration. ADAM13 is an active protease that can cleave fibronectin in vitro and remodel a fibronectin substrate in vivo. Using a recombinant secreted protein containing both disintegrin and(More)
The chromosomal localization of the gene for Thomsen disease, an autosomal dominant form of myotonia congenita, is unknown. Electrophysiologic data in Thomsen disease point to defects in muscle-membrane ion-channel function. A mouse model of myotonia congenita appears to result from transposon inactivation of a muscle chloride-channel gene which maps to a(More)
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder characterized by flaccid paralysis accompanied by lowered serum potassium levels. We have tested polymorphic markers linked to the adult skeletal muscle sodium channel (SCN4A) locus at 17q23-q25, the T-cell receptor beta (TCRB) locus at 7q35, and the H-Ras cellular(More)
ADAM19 is a member of the meltrin subfamily of ADAM metalloproteases. In Xenopus, ADAM19 is present as a maternal transcript. Zygotic expression starts during gastrulation and is apparent in the dorsal blastopore lip. ADAM19 expression through neurulation and tailbud formation becomes enriched in dorsal structures such as the neural tube, the notochord and(More)
Cleavage of proteins inserted into the plasma membrane (shedding) is an essential process controlling many biological functions including cell signaling, cell adhesion and migration as well as proliferation and differentiation. ADAM surface metalloproteases have been shown to play an essential role in these processes. Gene inactivation during embryonic(More)