Håvard Valvatne

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Because the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) differs among the 3 countries forming the Euregio Meuse-Rhin (EMR) region (Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands), cross-border healthcare requires information about the spread of MRSA in the EMR. We investigated the emergence, dissemination, and diversity of MRSA clones in the EMR(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea among children living in developing countries and of travelers' diarrhea. Current ETEC vaccine designs aim to induce an anti-colonizing immunity by including the ETEC surface colonization factor antigens. We isolated and characterized the structural gene of the coli surface antigen 20(More)
Pyrazinamide is important in tuberculosis treatment, as it is bactericidal to semidormant mycobacteria not killed by other antituberculosis drugs. Pyrazinamide is also one of the cornerstone drugs retained in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). However, due to technical difficulties, routine drug susceptibility testing of(More)
The PHD finger and the bromodomain are small protein domains that occur in many proteins associated with phenomena related to chromatin. The bromodomain has been shown to bind acetylated lysine residues on histone tails. Lysine acetylation is one of several histone modifications that have been proposed to form the basis for a mechanism for recording(More)
An enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain producing a previously undescribed putative colonization factor was isolated from a child with diarrhea in India. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacterial heat extracts revealed a polypeptide band of 20.8 kDa when the bacteria were grown at 37 degrees C which was absent after(More)
BACKGROUND The Beijing family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dominant in countries in East Asia. Genomic polymorphisms are a source of diversity within the M. tuberculosis genome and may account for the variation of virulence among M. tuberculosis isolates. Till date there are no studies that have examined the genomic composition of M. tuberculosis(More)
In the present study, a CAT assay, a beta-galactosidase assay, and immunofluorescence analysis have been used to study the cellular uptake of the HIV-1 Tat protein. An anti-Tat MAb binding to an epitope comprising both the basic domain and the RGD sequence inhibits trans-activation by exogenous Tat. Two different full-length recombinant Tat proteins were(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the frequency and nature of mutations in genes associated with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected from Yangon, Myanmar. METHODS Ninety-six isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates, including 29 multidrug-resistant isolates, were analysed for mutations in the rpoB, katG, inhA,(More)
A gene probe derived from the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) operon cross-hybridized at very low stringency to plasmid DNA from coli surface antigen 17 (CS17)-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and from the ETEC strain F595C, which was negative for previously described CFAs, CSs, and putative colonization factors (PCFs). A 16-kDa(More)
The outcome of many infections depends on the initial interactions between agent and host. Aiming at elucidating the effect of the M. tuberculosis Mce1 protein complex on host transcriptional and immunological responses to infection with M. tuberculosis, RNA from murine macrophages at 15, 30, 60 min, 4 and 10 hrs post-infection with M. tuberculosis H37Rv or(More)