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A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of(More)
Familial correlations in birth weight and gestational age have been explained by fetal and maternal genetic factors, mainly in studies on offspring of twins. The aim of the present intergenerational study was to estimate and compare fetal and maternal genetic effects and shared sibling environmental effects on birth weight and gestational age and also on(More)
Case-parent triad data are considered a robust basis for studying association between variants of a gene and a disease. Methods evaluating statistical significance of association, like the TDT-test and its extensions, are frequently used. When there are prior hypotheses of a causal effect of the gene under study, however, methods measuring penetrance of(More)
Human birth weight is subject to stabilizing selection; babies born too small or too large are less likely to survive. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune system genes are associated with pregnancies where the babies are ≤ 5th birth weight centile, specifically an inhibitory maternal KIR AA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2(More)
Biometrical genetic modeling of twin or other family data can be used to decompose the variance of an observed response or 'phenotype' into genetic and environmental components. Convenient parameterizations requiring few random effects are proposed, which allow such models to be estimated using widely available software for linear mixed models (continuous(More)
BACKGROUND Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark: 235 case-parent triads). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
BACKGROUND Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children living in developing countries and of travellers' diarrhoea. During the past 25 years, vaccine development efforts have been focused on induction of protective immunity against surface colonisation factors (CFs) and the heat-labile(More)
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND We sought to identify predictors of extended duration of diarrhea in young children, which contributes substantially to the nearly 1 1/2 million annual diarrheal deaths globally. METHODS We followed 6-35 month old Nepalese children enrolled in the placebo-arm of a randomized controlled trial with 391 episodes of acute diarrhea(More)