Håkan Billig

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Recent studies have demonstrated apoptotic DNA fragmentation in the testis of immature rats deprived of gonadotropins. However, the exact cell type undergoing apoptosis during testis development and the age differences of gonadotropin dependence of testis cell apoptosis are unclear. The present study used gel fractionation and in situ methods to quantitate(More)
The majority of oocytes present in fetal ovaries are depleted before birth, and only about 400 will ovulate during the normal fertile life span. Studies on animals have shown that apoptosis is the mechanism behind oocyte depletion and follicular atresia. In the present study, we investigated the extent and localization of apoptosis in human fetal (aged(More)
The size of body fat stores is known to influence fertility, indicating a link between adipose tissue and the reproductive system. Studies in mice have identified the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin (Ob protein), as a possible mediator of this effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that leptin may have direct effects on the human(More)
Apoptotic cell death has recently been suggested to be the underlying mechanism of ovarian follicle atresia. To study the regulation of follicle cell apoptosis by sex steroids, we have analyzed ovarian DNA fragmentation, the hallmark of apoptosis, in rats treated with estrogens and androgens. Immature rats were hypophysectomized and implanted with(More)
Although the majority of ovarian follicles undergo atresia through a mechanism involving apoptotic cell death, in vivo studies concerning the hormonal regulation of atresia have been difficult due to the presence of heterogeneous population of follicles in the ovary. In the present study, the regulation of follicle apoptosis by gonadotropins, insulin-like(More)
Hormonal regulation of apoptosis has been studied in cultured preovulatory follicles. Because early antral follicles are most vulnerable to undergo atretic degeneration under physiological conditions in vivo, the present studies were designed to investigate the hormonal regulation of apoptosis using in vitro culture of early antral follicles. Rats were(More)
The majority of ovarian follicles undergo atresia through a mechanism involving apoptotic cell death. Although GnRH and its agonists have been shown to suppress ovarian growth and differentiation in hypophysectomized rats, studies on the induction of follicle atresia by GnRH are contradictory. In the present study, the direct effect of GnRH on the(More)
Only a minute fraction of the ovarian follicles present in a fetal ovary will complete the path to ovulation. Most of the follicles will undergo atresia, a hormonally controlled apoptotic process. Apoptosis occurs at each stage of follicular development and there is a marked reduction in the number of follicles present at birth. Stage-dependent mechanisms(More)
The aim of the present study was to measure the level of cyclic GMP (cGMP) compared with the level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in rat oocytes during resumption of meiosis I (oocyte maturation) and to microinject these cyclic nucleotides into the oocyte to study their effects on oocyte maturation. Immature oocytes were obtained from prepubertal rats primed with(More)
Apoptosis is an important cellular process by which superfluous or unwanted cells are deleted from an organism during tissue remodeling and differentiation. Recent studies have demonstrated the role of this programmed cell death or "controlled cell suicide" in the physiological function of an organism. Suppression of apoptosis increases the susceptibility(More)