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Obesity-induced diabetes is associated with chronic inflammation and is considered a risk factor for neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that an AMP-activated protein kinase activator, resveratrol (RES), which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects, would attenuate peripheral and central inflammation and improve memory deficit in mice(More)
The ecdysone-inducible gene switch is a useful tool for modulating gene expression in mammalian cells and transgenic animals. We have identified inducers derived from plants as well as certain classes of insecticides that increase the versatility of this gene regulation system. Phytoecdysteroids share the favorable kinetics of steroids, but are inert in(More)
It has been known that ethanol causes neuronal cell death through oxidative stress. Ethanol itself and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by ethanol modulate intracellular signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. This study was conducted to examine the impact of ethanol on MAPK signaling in HT22 cells. Ethanol (100(More)
In this study, we showed the presence of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA in the rat brain using Northern blot analysis and revealed its localization using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Although the expression level is less than peripheral steroidogenic organs, the brain has two kinds of StAR transcripts with the same size as(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme involved in energy homeostasis, regulates inflammatory responses, but its precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent evidence has shown that resveratrol (RES), an AMPK activator, reduces prostaglandin E(2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglia. Here, we examined the effect of RES on(More)
Recent studies revealed that Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) directly regulates the transcription of aldose reductase (AR), which catalyzes the first step of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism. Activation of protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) is dependent on AR and it has been linked to diabetic complications. However, whether TonEBP(More)
Caffeine is the most commonly ingested methylxanthine and has anti-cancer effects in several types of cancer. In this study, we examined the anti-cancer effects of caffeine on gliomas, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, caffeine treatment reduced glioma cell proliferation through G(0)/G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest by suppressing Rb phosphorylation. In(More)
This study examined the functional significance of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression on renal injury induced by ureteral obstruction in the rat kidney. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, after which unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was performed: untreated (group 1), treated with 30 mg/kg body wt hemin (group 2), and treated with(More)
In this study we found the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA and protein in both the normal human brain and intracranial tumors, using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. StAR mRNA is expressed at a very low level in the white matter of the normal human brain, but in tumoral tissues StAR mRNA was specifically expressed in(More)
The present study investigated the expression pattern of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA in several brain regions and peripheral endocrine organs using Northern blot, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. StAR mRNA in the adrenal gland was detected at birth and decreased for 2 weeks postnatally. In gonads, it was also detected at birth though(More)