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Bacteria are known to communicate primarily via secreted extracellular factors. Here we identify a previously uncharacterized type of bacterial communication mediated by nanotubes that bridge neighboring cells. Using Bacillus subtilis as a model organism, we visualized transfer of cytoplasmic fluorescent molecules between adjacent cells. Additionally, by(More)
Bacillus anthracis makes highly stable, heat-resistant spores which remain viable for decades. Effect of various stress conditions on sporulation in B. anthracis was studied in nutrient-deprived and sporulation medium adjusted to various pH and temperatures. The results revealed that sporulation efficiency was dependent on conditions prevailing during(More)
External and internal changes occurring during the process of germination of Bacillus anthracis spores were observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. AFM studies showed that in response to L-alanine (4 mM), as a germinant, the spore germinates into a vegetative cell in 3 hours. The temporal size(More)
Spo0B is an important component of the phosphorelay signal transduction pathway, the pathway involved in the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Bioinformatic, phylogenetic and biochemical studies showed that Spo0B of Bacillus anthracis has evolved from citrate/malate kinases. During the course of evolution, Spo0B has retained the characteristic(More)
Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mNdK) is a secretory protein, but the rationale behind secreting an enzyme involved in the maintenance of cellular pool of nucleoside triphosphates is not clearly understood. To elucidate the biological significance of mNdK secretion, we expressed mNdK fused to green fluorescent protein in HeLa(More)
The propensity of bacterium to sporulate or retain the vegetative form depends on the amount of phosphorylated Spo0A (Spo0A(-P)), regulated by Spo0E multigene family of phosphatases (Spo0E, YisI and YnzD). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Spo0E multigene family of phosphatases (SMFP) descends in two distinct clades of aerobic (Bacillus cluster) and(More)
Bacteria display an array of contact-dependent interaction systems that have evolved to facilitate direct cell-to-cell communication. We have previously identified a mode of bacterial communication mediated by nanotubes bridging neighboring cells. Here, we elucidate nanotube architecture, dynamics, and molecular components. Utilizing Bacillus subtilis as a(More)
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