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Presynaptic activation of protein kinase A (PKA) induces LTP in cerebellar parallel fiber synapses. Presynaptic LTP is known to require the active zone protein RIM1alpha, but the underlying induction mechanism remains unclear. We now show that PKA directly phosphorylates RIM1alpha at two sites. Using paired recordings from cultured cerebellar granule and(More)
In mossy fiber synapses of the hippocampal CA3 region, LTP is induced by cAMP and requires the synaptic vesicle protein rab3A. In contrast, CA1-region synapses do not exhibit this type of LTP. We now show that cAMP enhances glutamate release from CA3 but not CA1 synaptosomes by (1) increasing the readily releasable pool as tested by hypertonic sucrose; (2)(More)
Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is a potential health risk in long-term space travel and represents a significant risk to the central nervous system. The most harmful component of galactic cosmic radiation is the HZE [high mass, highly charged (Z), high energy] particles, e.g., (56)Fe particle. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to doses(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule cell-Purkinje cell synapses in the mouse cerebellum requires phosphorylation by protein kinase A of the active-zone protein RIM1alpha at Ser413. Here, we show that the adapter protein 14-3-3 readily binds phosphorylated Ser413 in RIM1alpha, and that presynaptic transfection with a dominant-negative 14-3-3eta mutant,(More)
Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is considered to be a potential health risk in long-term space travel, and it represents a significant risk to the central nervous system (CNS). The most harmful component of GCR is the HZE [high-mass, highly charged (Z), high-energy] particles, e.g. (56)Fe. In ground-based experiments, exposure to HZE-particle(More)
Previous studies established that genetic deletion of synapsins, synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins that regulate neurotransmitter release, decreases the number of synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals. To investigate whether these changes affect the release properties of the remaining synaptic vesicles, we used a radioactive labeling technique to(More)
Presentation of a tonal cue that previously had been associated with a fearful experience (footshock) produces alterations in arousal and sleep that occur after the fearful cue is no longer presented. To begin investigating neurochemical mechanisms that may underlie the effects of fearful cue presentation, we measured release of [(3)H]-norepinephrine(More)
Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is considered to be a potential health risk in long-term space travel, and it represents a significant risk to the central nervous system (CNS). The most harmful component of GCR is the HZE [high-mass, highly charged (Z), high-energy] particles, e.g. (56)Fe. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to high(More)
Pioneering work suggests that a synaptic active zone protein, RIM1, regulates both short- and long-term glutamatergic presynaptic plasticity at certain synapses. In short-term plasticity, RIM1 accelerates the priming of synaptic vesicles for fusion; by contrast, in long-term potentiation of mossy fiber synapses in the hippocampal CA3 region, phosphorylated(More)
The synapsins, an abundant and highly conserved family of proteins that associate with synaptic vesicles, have been implicated in regulating the synaptic vesicle cycle. However, it has not been determined whether synapsin directly regulates the number of docked vesicles. Here we document that reducing Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](o) in the extracellular(More)