Gwyneth A. Verkerk

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BACKGROUND Maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy is an important determinant of early fetal brain development because the fetal thyroid is unable to produce any T4 before 12-14 weeks' gestation. Overt maternal hypothyroidism as seen in severe iodine-deficient areas is associated with severely impaired neurological development of the offspring. At(More)
Cows with an extended interval from calving to first ovulation (PPI) have increased intervals from calving to conception and are more likely to be culled compared with cows with a short PPI. In year-round calving dairy herds, between 11 and 38% of cows are reported as anestrus by 50 or 60 d after calving. In seasonally calving dairy herds, between 13 and(More)
The feasibility of monitoring acute adrenal activity in New Zealand dairy cattle by measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites was investigated. Fecal glucocorticoid measurement has potential as an indicator of adrenal activity and animal stress because sampling is relatively noninvasive, does not interfere with the stress response itself, and permits(More)
This experiment compared Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows of New Zealand (NZ) origin representative of genetics present in the 1970s (NZ70; n = 45) and 1990s (NZ90; n = 60), and a group of HF cows of North American origin with 1990s genetics (NA90; n = 60), which were managed in grazing systems with a range of feeding allowances (4.5 to 7.0 t/cow per yr) over 3(More)
The objectives of this study were to investigate whether; 1) temperament or 2) behavioral responsiveness to humans, can affect the behavior, physiology and productivity of dairy cows being milked in a familiar and novel milking environment. Temperament of multi-parous cows was defined based on exit time from a restraint device, as High Responders (HR;(More)
The effect of increased access to pasture feeding during the last 6 wk of gestation on metabolic responses and postpartum anestrous interval was investigated. Heifers with a body condition score (BCS) of 5.0 (BC5+FF; on a 1-to-10 scale, US = 1.5 + 0.32 x New Zealand) were offered unrestricted pasture, and those with BCS 4.0 were fed either pasture(More)
Induction of tight junction permeability in the mammary epithelium decreases milk secretion, and in cows tight junctions become leaky after 17 h of milk accumulation. In vitro studies demonstrate the importance of glucocorticoids for the formation and maintenance of tight junctions. In this study we examined whether cortisol can prevent mammary tight(More)
The somatotropic axis [including growth hormone (GH), GH receptor, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I] is uncoupled in high-producing cows in early lactation so that the liver fails to respond to GH and produces less IGF-I. This uncoupling was implicated in the process of nutrient partitioning, enabling high milk production. Different genetic selection(More)
The possibility that changes in eye temperature, measured using infrared thermography (IRT), can detect stress in dairy cattle was examined by six different stimulations of the stress axis. Six cows were given six treatments in a random Latin-square design: 1) Control (saline) 2) ACTH (0.05 mg Synacthen) 3) bCRH (20 mug) 4) bCRH (40 mug) 5) epinephrine (1.4(More)
The body temperature of dairy cows in pastoral systems during summer reaches a peak during and following the p.m. milking. Shade and sprinklers can be used separately or in combination at the milking parlor to reduce heat load. Farmers anecdotally report that the use of sprinklers reduces irritation from insects that occurs while cows are waiting for(More)