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Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are used increasingly to explore hazardous marine environments. Risk assessment for such complex systems is based on subjective judgment and expert knowledge as much as on hard statistics. Here, we describe the use of a risk management process tailored to AUV operations, the implementation of which requires the(More)
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are effective platforms for science research and 9 monitoring, and for military and commercial data-gathering purposes. However, there is an inevitable risk of 10 loss during any mission. Quantifying the risk of loss is complex, due to the combination of vehicle reliability 11 and environmental factors, and cannot be(More)
We surveyed Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) under sea ice using the autonomous underwater vehicle Autosub-2. Krill were concentrated within a band under ice between 1 and 13 kilometers south of the ice edge. Within this band, krill densities were fivefold greater than that of open water. The under-ice environment has long been considered an important(More)
— The deployment of complex autonomous underwater platforms for marine science comprises a series of sequential steps. Each step is critical to the success of the mission. In this paper we present a state transition approach, in the form of a Markov chain, which models the sequence of steps from pre-launch to operation to recovery. The aim is to identify(More)
Specifying an energy source for an AUV is usually a compromise between performance and cost. For most vehicles and most missions, high specific energy primary lithium batteries are not a practical option due to cost. One solution that shows promise and affordable cost is to use a hybrid approach that combines low cost secondary batteries with a fuel cell or(More)
Reliability is especially important for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) that have made the transition to operational use. However, in contrast to the unmanned air vehicle community, there has been little sharing in the open literature of detailed fault histories of commercial AUVs from which an assessment of their reliability can be made. In this(More)
Earth Observations (EO) collect various characteristics of the objective environment using sensors which often have different measuring, spatial and temporal coverage. Making individual observational data interoperable becomes equally important when viewed in the context of its expensive and time-consuming EO operations. Interoperability will improve(More)
Probabilistic risk assessment is a methodology that can be systematically applied to estimate the risk associated with the design and operation of complex systems. The National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK has developed a risk management process tailored to the operation of autonomous underwater vehicles. Central to the application of the risk(More)
The editors are grateful to the help they received from Jenni Jones, Jenny Mallinson and Lewis Ody in arranging and hosting the Masterclass. The editors and chapter authors thank those that gave permission for their illustrations to be used in this work. ABSTRACT There is increasing interest from the marine science community in using autonomous underwater(More)