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It is well established that the hippocampal formation is critically involved in the acquisition of trace memories, a paradigm in which the conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) are separated by a temporal gap (Solomon et al., 1986). The structure is reportedly not critical for the acquisition of delay memories, where the CS and the US overlap in(More)
Exposure to an acute stressful experience facilitates classical conditioning in male rats but impairs conditioning in female rats (T. J. Shors, C. Lewczyk, M. Paczynski, P. R. Mathew, & J. Pickett, 1998; G. E. Wood & T. J. Shors, 1998). The authors report that these effects extend to performance on the hippocampal-dependent task of trace conditioning. The(More)
Estrogens have direct effects on the brain areas controlling cognition. One of the most studied of these regions is the dorsal hippocampal formation, which governs the formation of spatial and episodic memories. In laboratory animals, most investigators report that estrogen enhances synaptic plasticity and improves performance on hippocampal-dependent(More)
The hippocampus, an important integration center for learning and memory in the mammalian brain, undergoes neurological changes in response to a variety of stimuli that are suggestive of ongoing synaptic reorganization. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify markers of synaptic plasticity using rapid and reliable techniques such as(More)
Excitatory amino acids play a key role in stress-induced remodeling of dendrites in the hippocampus as well as in suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. The regulation of extracellular glutamate levels has been suggested as a potential mechanism through which repeated stress causes dendritic remodeling of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Accordingly, the(More)
Stress and elevated stress hormone levels are known to alter cognition, learning, memory, and emotional responses. Three weeks of chronic stress or glucocorticoid exposure is reported to alter neuronal morphology in the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex, and to decrease neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Here we examine the effects of(More)
Chronic restraint stress, psychosocial stress, as well as systemic or oral administration of the stress-hormone corticosterone induces a morphological reorganization in the rat hippocampus, in which adrenal steroids and excitatory amino acids mediate a reversible remodeling of apical dendrites on CA3 pyramidal cell neurons of the hippocampus. This(More)
Chronic restraint stress affects hippocampal and amygdalar synaptic plasticity as determined by electrophysiological, morphological and behavioral measures, changes that are inhibited by some but not all antidepressants. The efficacy of some classes of antidepressants is proposed to involve increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein(More)
Here we tested whether exposure to either tailshock or swim stress alters ovarian hormone levels, estrogen and progesterone, in females and whether the effects are persistent. Adrenal hormone levels were also measured in males and females. Estradiol levels were elevated in unstressed females during proestrus relative to females in other stages of estrous,(More)
Exposure to stressful experiences as well as sex differences in the brain are known to influence the acquisition of new memories. This review focuses on acquisition of two types of Pavlovian learning paradigms: hippocampal-independent delay conditioning and hippocampal-dependent trace conditioning and their modulation by exposure to stressful experience and(More)