Gwenan M. Knight

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OBJECTIVES The majority of HA-MRSA infections are caused by endogenous infection and by only a small number of clones. The reasons for the success of some clones over others are unknown. METHODS We investigated the evolution of an MRSA population from a large, acute-care teaching hospital in London, UK over a 10 year period. MRSA incidence and antibiotic(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is a risk factor for respiratory infection, and hyperglycaemia is associated with increased glucose in airway surface liquid and risk of Staphylococcus aureus infection. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether elevation of basolateral/blood glucose concentration promotes airway Staphylococcus aureus growth and whether pretreatment with the(More)
Unacceptable levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission are noted in high burden settings and a renewed focus on reducing person-to-person transmission in these communities is needed. We review recent developments in the understanding of airborne transmission. We outline approaches to measure transmission in populations and trials and describe the(More)
Despite current control efforts, global tuberculosis (TB) incidence is decreasing slowly. New regimens that can shorten treatment hold promise for improving treatment completion and success, but their impact on population-level transmission remains unclear. Earlier models projected that a four-month regimen could reduce TB incidence by 10% but assumed that(More)
The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy), the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on long-term population-level tuberculosis disease (TB) incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS We used a mathematical model to consider the effect of different assumptions about life expectancy and TB risk during long-term ART under alternative scenarios for trends in population HIV(More)
To help reach the target of tuberculosis (TB) disease elimination by 2050, vaccine development needs to occur now. We estimated the impact and cost-effectiveness of potential TB vaccines in low- and middle-income countries using an age-structured transmission model. New vaccines were assumed to be available in 2024, to prevent active TB in all individuals,(More)
OBJECTIVES MRSA is a major antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pathogen. The reservoir of infecting isolates is colonization, which is the site of evolutionary selection. The aim was to identify if AMRs in colonizing MRSA populations diversified and potential mechanisms of resistance gene transfer in vivo. METHODS Nasal swabs from 38 MRSA carriers admitted to(More)
Healthcare-associated (HA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone CC22 SCCmecIV (EMRSA-15) has recently overtaken CC30/ST36 SCCmecII (EMRSA-16) as the dominant clone in UK hospitals. CC22 SCCmecIV shows greater fitness than CC30 SCCmecII, although both are successful global pathogens. The aim of this study was to test whether mobile genetic(More)