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In October 2000, bluetongue virus was detected on the French island of Corsica. The disease was also reported in Sardinia, Calabria, Sicily and on the Spanish islands of Majorca and Minorca. This paper describes the use of molecular techniques for a rapid identification and serotype determination of serotype 2 of the virus. The nucleotide sequences of(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV) is an enveloped, non-segmented negative-stranded RNA virus which belongs to the Bornaviridae family. BDV is an aetiological agent of encephalitis in horses, sheep and several other vertebrate species. In order to extend our knowledge about the presence of BDV in France, a study based on BDV RNA detection by RT-nested-PCR was done(More)
West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is native to Africa, Europe, and Western Asia. It mainly circulates among birds, but can infect many species of mammals, as well as amphibians and reptiles. Epidemics can occur in rural as well as urban areas. Transmission of WN virus, sometimes involving significant mortality in humans and horses,(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first diagnosed in poultry in Egypt in 2006, and since then the disease became enzootic in poultry throughout the country, affecting the poultry industry and village poultry as well as infecting humans. Vaccination has been used as a part of the control strategy to help to control the(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, native to Africa, Europe, and Western Asia. In many respects, WNV is an outstanding example of a zoonotic pathogen that has leaped geographical barriers and can cause severe disease in human and horse. Before the emergence of WNV in the USA, only few methods of diagnosis were available. Recently, many(More)
Bluetongue (BT) and/or BT viruses (BTV) have been identified in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans each year from 1998 to 2002 and in particular BTV serotype 2 in the French Island of Corsica (2000 and 2001). In response to these virus incursions, the French Veterinary Authorities carried out epidemiological studies that included virological,(More)
For over two centuries, Borna disease (BD) has been described as a sporadically occurring infectious meningoencephalomyelitis affecting horses and sheep in Central Europe. Over the last decade, the BD epidemiology has been discussed. Firstly, its geographical distribution seems larger than what was previously thought. Secondly, the disease can affect a(More)
The highly neurotropic Borna Disease Virus (BDV), which belongs to the Mononegavirales order--Bornaviridae family--is generally detected using the RT-nested-PCR. If false positive results (often caused by laboratory contaminations) can be avoided, some false negative results which are mostly due to inhibitory effects of some reaction components and/or to(More)
The last major human epidemics of infectious diseases have arisen from animals. Some of them are especially threatening. The authors call attention to the danger of spread of avian influenza, either directly or indirectly through genetic rearrangements. They underline the role of animals in the epidemiology of SARS, West Nile virus, hepatitis E, NIPA and(More)
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