Molecular motors have inspired many avenues of research for nanotechnology but most molecular motors studied so far allow only unidirectional movement. The archaeal RNA-exosome is a reversible motor that can either polymerize or degrade an RNA strand, depending on the chemical environments. We developed a single molecule fluorescence assay to analyze the… (More)
λ exonuclease degrades one strand of duplex DNA in the 5'-to-3' direction to generate a 3' overhang required for recombination. Its ability to hydrolyze thousands of nucleotides processively is attributed to its ring structure, and most studies have focused on the processive phase. Here we have used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer… (More)
Phosphates along the DNA function as chemical energy frequently used by nucleases to drive their enzymatic reactions. Exonuclease functions as a machine that converts chemical energy of the phosphodiester-chain into mechanical work. However, the roles of phosphates during exonuclease activities are unknown. We employed λ exonuclease as a model system and… (More)
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Single-molecule tracking provides new insights into how an ATP-independent endo-proteolytic machine digests collagen fibrils during their remodeling.