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BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is highly prevalent in the African population, is one of the most common vaginal syndromes affecting women in their reproductive age placing them at increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases including infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1. The vaginal microbiota of a healthy woman is often dominated by(More)
We studied 1163 sexually-active HIV-infected South African men and women in an urban primary care program to understand patterns of sexual behaviors and whether these behaviors differed by partner HIV status. Overall, 40% reported a HIV-positive partner and 60% a HIV-negative or status unknown partner; and 17.5% reported >2 sex acts in the last 2 weeks,(More)
This study investigated the relationship between highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among two clinical cohorts in South Africa. Between 2003 and 2008 structured questionnaires were administered to HIV-positive patients attending outpatient clinics at an urban hospital (Soweto, n = 3,081) and a(More)
The MIRA trial assessed whether providing diaphragm, lubricant gel, and condoms (intervention) compared with condoms alone (control) could reduce HIV incidence among 5,039 Southern African women. Compared with the control group, the cumulative proportion of last sex acts protected by any method was higher in the intervention group (OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.18,(More)
Role of Contributors The core protocol team (CC, AW, JRL, JMB, LC, AM, JPH) designed the study and JPH and KT performed the primary data analysis. All investigators were involved in data collection, reviewed manuscript drafts and approved the final manuscript; JRL, JMB and CC wrote the initial manuscript draft and vouch for the data, analysis, and(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated genetic variants in 51 candidate genes encoding proteins that interact with HIV-1 during the virus life cycle for association with HIV-1 outcomes in an African cohort. METHODS Using a nested case-control study within a cohort of heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we genotyped 475 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide(More)
BACKGROUND We conducted a review of the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. The objectives were: to identify studies assessing the accuracy of clinical examination in the detection of cirrhosis; to summarize the diagnostic accuracy of reported physical examination findings; and to define the effects of study(More)
The generation of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells, in response to vaccination or natural infection, has been associated with improved protective immunity. However, it is unclear whether the maintenance of polyfunctionality is related to particular cellular phenotypic characteristics. To determine whether the cytokine expression profile is linked to the memory(More)
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