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Microelectrode arrays increasingly serve to extracellularly record in parallel electrical activity from many excitable cells without inflicting damage to the cells by insertion of microelectrodes. Nevertheless, apart from rare cases they suffer from a low signal to noise ratio. The limiting factor for effective electrical coupling is the low seal resistance(More)
Varicosities (VRs) are ubiquitous neuronal structures that are considered to serve as presynaptic structures. The mechanisms of their assembly are unknown. Using cultured Aplysia neurons, we found that in the absence of postsynaptic targets, VRs form at the leading edge of extending neurites when anterogradely transported organelles accumulate within the(More)
Varicosities are ubiquitous neuronal structures that appear as local swellings along neurites of invertebrate and vertebrate neurons. Surprisingly little is known about their cell biology. We use here cultured Aplysia neurons and demonstrate that varicosities are motile compartments that contain large clusters of organelles. The content of varicosities(More)
Transformation of a transected axonal tip into a growth cone (GC) is a critical step in the cascade leading to neuronal regeneration. Critical to the regrowth is the supply and concentration of vesicles at restricted sites along the cut axon. The mechanisms underlying these processes are largely unknown. Using online confocal imaging of transected, cultured(More)
The double C2 domain protein family (DOC2) is characterized by two calcium-binding domains (C2). Upon binding to calcium, the affinity of the protein to phospholipids is significantly increased, leading to translocation of the protein from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. These properties, and the binding domain of DOC2B to Munc13, suggested that DOC2B(More)
The use of the sensory-motor (SN-MN) synapse of the Aplysia gill withdrawal reflex has contributed immensely to the understanding of synaptic transmission, learning and memory acquisition processes. Whereas the majority of the studies focused on analysis of the presynaptic mechanisms, recent studies indicated that as in mammalian synapses, long term(More)
Much of what we know about the mechanisms underlying Homosynaptic Depression (HSD) and heterosynaptic facilitation is based on intracellular recordings of integrated postsynaptic potentials (PSPs). This methodological approach views the presynaptic apparatus as a single compartment rather than taking a more realistic representation reflecting the fact that(More)
Microelectrode arrays increasingly serve to extracellularly record in parallel electrical activity from many excitable cells without inflicting damage to the cells by insertion of microelectrodes. Nevertheless, apart from rare cases they suffer from a low signal to noise ratio. The limiting factor for effective electrical coupling is the low seal resistance(More)
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