Guy L. Clifton

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Controlled cortical impact models produce brain injury by using a pneumatic impactor to impact exposed brain. This study systematically examined the effects of varying magnitudes of controlled cortical impact to the rat brain on neurological, cardiovascular, and histopathological variables. As the magnitude of injury increased, the duration of suppression(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This(More)
Damage to the cerebral cortex results in neurological impairments such as motor, attention, memory and executive dysfunctions. To examine the molecular mechanisms contributing to these deficits, mRNA expression was profiled using high-density cDNA microarray hybridization after experimental cortical impact injury in mice. The mRNA levels at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h,(More)
Prolonged neurological dysfunction that results from an insult to the brain is often attributed to irreversible structural damage such as loss of neurons or axonal degeneration. For example, following cerebral ischemia even partial hippocampal CA1 neuronal loss has been proposed to be sufficient to result in deficits in hippocampal dependent spatial memory.(More)
Forty-six patients with severe nonpenetrating brain injury [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 4-7] were randomized to standard management at 37 degrees C (n = 22) and to standard management with systemic hypothermia to 32 to 33 degrees C (n = 24). The two groups were balanced in terms of age (Wilcoxon's rank sum test, p > 0.95), randomizing GCS (chi-square test, p =(More)
The capacity of a calpain inhibitor to reduce losses of neurofilament 200-, neurofilament 68- and calpain 1-mediated spectrin breakdown products was examined following traumatic brain injury in the rat. Twenty-four hours after unilateral cortical impact injury, western blot analyses detected neurofilament 200 losses of 65% (ipsilateral) and 36%(More)
Much recent research has focused on the pathological significance of calcium accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS) following cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury (SCI), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Disturbances in neuronal calcium homeostasis may result in the activation of several calcium-sensitive enzymes, including lipases, kinases,(More)
BACKGROUND The inconsistent effect of hypothermia treatment on severe brain injury in previous trials might be because hypothermia was induced too late after injury. We aimed to assess whether very early induction of hypothermia improves outcome in patients with severe brain injury. METHODS The National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia II (NABIS: H(More)
PURPOSE To determine the efficacy and relative contribution of several diagnostic methods [ictal and interictal scalp and intracranial EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)] in identifying the epileptogenic zone for resection. METHODS This was a prospective study using a masked comparison-to-criterion standard.(More)