Guy J. Hallman

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Ideally, integrated pest management should rely on an array of tactics. In reality, the main technologies in use are synthetic pesticides. Because of well-documented problems with reliance on synthetic pesticides, viable alternatives are sorely needed. Physical controls can be classified as passive (e.g., trenches, fences, organic mulch, particle films,(More)
This is a review of current post-harvest entomology research conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, the research branch of the US Department of Agriculture. The review covers both durable and perishable commodities. Research on biochemistry, genetics, physiology, monitoring and control of insects infesting stored grain, dried fruits and nuts, and(More)
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the fumigant is under increasing regulation as a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance. Ionizing(More)
Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella(More)
Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a quarantine pest of many temperate fruits, such as pomes, Malus spp.; stone fruits, Prunus spp.; and blueberries, Vaccinium spp.; in North America east of the Rocky Mountains and a small area in Utah. There are two strains, a northern univoltine one that undergoes obligate diapause as an adult and a(More)
Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is a pest of many rosaceous temperate fruits, including pomes, Malus spp., and stone fruits, Prunus spp., in much of the world. However, some areas are free of the pest, and shipments of fruit hosts from infested to noninfested areas may be regulated. Current quarantine treatments for oriental fruit moth(More)
Tephritid fruit flies comprise the most important group of quarantined pests of fresh produce. Most quarantine treatments of fresh agricultural commodities are directed against these pests, and considerable effort in detection, trapping, and population control is expended worldwide to prevent these pests from invading new territories. Ionizing radiation has(More)
Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus, avocados, and mangoes, from extreme southern Texas to Costa Rica. To provide information for modeling heat phytosanitary treatments, third instars were heated with an aluminum heating block between 44 and 50 degrees C for time intervals up to those causing(More)
Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments are promising measures to overcome quarantine barriers to trade and are currently used in several countries. Although PI has advantages compared with other treatments one disadvantage bedevils research, approval, and application: organisms may remain alive after importation. Although this does not preclude their use(More)
Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is a quarantine pest of apples, Malus domestica Borkhausen, and pears, Pyrus communis L., shipped from much of the United States and Canada. As such, these fruits shipped from infested areas to uninfested areas must undergo a quarantine disinfestation treatment. The objective of this research was to develop(More)