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BACKGROUND Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In mice, MMP-12 plays a crucial role in the development of cigarette smoke induced emphysema. A study was undertaken to investigate the role of MMP-12 in the development of COPD in human smokers. METHODS Induced sputum(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is mainly caused by cigarette smoking, and is characterized by an increase in inflammatory cells in the airways and pulmonary tissue. The chemokine receptor CCR6 and its ligand MIP-3alpha/CCL20 may be involved in the recruitment of these inflammatory cells. To investigate the role of CCR6 in the pathogenesis of(More)
COPD is underdiagnosed and its early assessment is problematic. It has been suggested that symptomatic smokers with normal FEV1/FVC (Stage 0 COPD, GOLD criteria) can develop COPD in the future. Potential early biomarkers in COPD include the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). It is not yet known, whether alterations in MMP expression are associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for the development of COPD. CS exposure is associated with an increased risk of bacterial colonization and respiratory tract infection, because of suppressed antibacterial activities of the immune system and delayed clearance of microbial agents from the lungs. Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with abnormal inflammatory responses and structural alterations of the airways, lung parenchyma and pulmonary vasculature. Since Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a tuner of inflammatory responses and is produced by endothelial and inflammatory cells upon stimuli such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), we(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous syndrome associated with abnormal inflammatory immune responses of the lung to noxious particles and gases. Cigarette smoke activates innate immune cells such as epithelial cells and macrophages by triggering pattern recognition receptors, either directly or indirectly via the release of(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by chronic inflammation of the airways and progressive destruction of lung parenchyma, a process that in most cases is initiated by cigarette smoking. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of the disease: influx of inflammatory cells into the lung (leading to chronic inflammation of(More)
BACKGROUND Some patients with severe asthma have frequent exacerbations associated with persistent eosinophilic inflammation despite continuous treatment with high-dose inhaled glucocorticoids with or without oral glucocorticoids. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study, we assigned 576 patients with recurrent asthma exacerbations and(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with a chronic inflammatory response of the host to chronic exposure to inhaled toxic gases and particles. Although inflammatory cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system infiltrate the lungs in pulmonary emphysema and form lymphoid follicles around the small airways, the exact role of(More)