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Sound abstract interpretation has been successful in proving interesting properties of programs. Commercially available tools are now able to verify the absence of runtime errors in safety critical applications. The ability to verify the absence of errors comes from the fact that these tools use conservative methods, i.e., whenever the algorithm verifies a(More)
The information content of a contour map is calculated and compared with the information required for determining the relative position of the contours. We have found that usually the information required for arranging the contours in the right order is small as compared with that of producing the map. To demonstrate this finding we introduce two novel(More)
We present a simple phenomenological theory of the optogalvanic effect based on the multiplication of an electron within the plasma. The dependence of the signal on current and pressure and its temporal behavior are predicted for atoms irradiated by chopped CW lasers and pulsed lasers. Experimental data obtained by pulsed lasers are presented and(More)
The copper vapor laser is a pulsed gas laser which emits energy in two wavelengths simultaneously: 510.6 nm (green) and 578.2 nm (yellow). Each pulse has a duration of 15 nsec, maximal energy of 3 mJ and a peak power of more than 100 kW. It is a variably high repetition rate laser, in the range between 1 kHz and more than 20 kHz. We studied its interaction(More)
A thermal model has been used for the interaction of an annular laser beam of a high-repetition-rate pulsed laser (copper-vapor laser) with the retina of a rabbit. The model predicts the temperature rise at each retinal point, during and after the laser exposure, as a function of pulse energy, exposure time, and pulse repetition rate. The retinal effects(More)
A convenient method to measure beam divergence of laser beams is described. The apparatus is compact and accurate due to the use of a telescope to focus the beam. Incorporation of a Fabry-Perot etalon permits focusing and in situ calibration. Measurement of single-pulse beam divergence is performed with a CCTV system which includes a video tape recorder.