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PURPOSE To compare the quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla, under normo- and hypercapnia, and to determine the cerebral vascular response (CVR) of gray matter (GM) to hypercapnia, a pulsed arterial spin labeling technique was used. Additionally, to improve GM CBF quantification a high-resolution GM-mask was applied. MATERIALS(More)
BACKGROUND Congestive heart failure (CHF) patients often present with obstructive and central sleep apnea occurring concurrently within the same night. This study assessed the efficacy of, and improvements associated with, the use of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) in CHF patients with all types of sleep apnea. We hypothesized that ASV would be effective(More)
During wakefulness, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is closely coupled to regional cerebral metabolism; however CBF is also strongly modulated by breathing, increasing in response to both hypercapnia and hypoxia. During stage III/IV non-rapid eye (NREM) sleep, cerebral metabolism and CBF decrease whilst the partial pressure of arterial CO2 increases due to a(More)
During wakefulness, increases in the partial pressure of arterial CO(2) result in marked rises in cortical blood flow. However, during stage III-IV, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and despite a relative state of hypercapnia, cortical blood flow is reduced compared with wakefulness. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that, in normal(More)
The cardiovascular response to an arousal occurring at the termination of an obstructive apnea is almost double that to a spontaneous arousal. We investigated the hypothesis that central plus peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, induced by hypercapnic hypoxia (HH), augments the cardiovascular response to arousal from sleep. Auditory-induced arousals during(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The reduction in hypercapnic cerebral vascular reactivity that occurs in the morning after sleep is associated with an increased risk of cerebral ischemia and stroke. It is not known if the cerebral vascular response to hypoxia is similarly reduced in the morning, but such a reduction could be considered a further risk factor for(More)
Nocturnal hypoxia is a major pathological factor associated with cardiorespiratory disease. During wakefulness, a decrease in arterial O2 tension results in a decrease in cerebral vascular tone and a consequent increase in cerebral blood flow; however, the cerebral vascular response to hypoxia during sleep is unknown. In the present study, we determined the(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Hypercapnic cerebral vascular reactivity (HCVR) is reduced in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB); this may be associated with an increased risk of stroke. We tested the hypothesis that reversal of SDB in CHF patients using adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) would increase morning HCVR. DESIGN(More)
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is typically reduced during stable non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep compared with the waking level. It is not known when in the sleep cycle these changes occur. However, spontaneous fluctuations in alpha and theta rhythm during sleep onset are associated with marked changes in cardio-respiratory control. The aim of this study(More)
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