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Forty-four actin genes from five angiosperm species were PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of 34 of these actins, along with those previously published, indicates that angiosperm actin genes are monophyletic and underwent several duplications during evolution. Orthologues have been identified between Solanaceae species, as well as(More)
The zebrafish genome contains at least five msx homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC, msxD, and the newly isolated msxE. Although these genes share structural features common to all Msx genes, phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences indicate that the msx genes from zebrafish are not orthologous to the Msx1 and Msx2 genes of mammals, birds, and amphibians.(More)
Stanley Sawyer's gene conversion detection method, implemented in his GENECONV computer program, was used to detect and characterize the gene conversions between the multigene family members of the yeast genome. This method gave different gene conversion frequencies and size distribution for gene families with two members and multigene families with more(More)
Previous studies have estimated that, in angiosperms, the synonymous substitution rate of chloroplast genes is three times higher than that of mitochondrial genes and that of nuclear genes is twelve times higher than that of mitochondrial genes. Here we used 12 genes in 27 seed plant species to investigate whether these relative rates of substitutions are(More)
Nine different actin DNA sequences were isolated from the common potato,Solanum tuberosum, and the nucleotide sequence of five actin loci and of two allelic variants are presented. Unlike the wide variation in intron position among animal actin genes, the potato actin genes have three introns situated in the same positions as reported for all other(More)
We used a variety of methods to detect known gene conversions in the actin gene families of five angiosperm species, the beta-globin gene families of two primate species, and the Zfx/Zfy gene families of seven mammalian species. Our goal was to devise a working strategy which would allow the analysis of the members of a multigene family in order to(More)
The phylogenetic position of gnetophytes has long been controversial. We sequenced parts of the genes coding for the largest subunit of nuclear RNA polymerase I, II, and III and combined these sequences with those of four chloroplast genes, two mitochondrial genes, and 18S rRNA genes to address this issue. Both maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony(More)
We characterized the ectopic gene conversions in the genomes of the K-12 MG1655, O157:H7 Sakai, O157:H7 EDL933, and CFT073 strains of E coli. Compared to the three pathogenic strains, the K-12 strain has a much smaller number of gene families, its gene families contain fewer genes, and gene conversions are less frequent. Whereas the three pathogenic strains(More)
Allelic recombination has previously been shown to increase the GC-content of the sequences of a wide variety of eukaryotic species. Ectopic recombination between clustered tandemly repeated genes has also been shown to increase their GC-content. Here we show that gene conversions between the dispersed genes found in the duplicated regions of the yeast and(More)