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Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. Hyponatraemia is present in 15-20% of emergency admissions to hospital and occurs in up to 20% of critically ill patients. Symptomatology may vary from subtle to severe or even life(More)
BACKGROUND Mild hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte imbalance in the older population and has been shown to be associated with gait and attention deficits resulting in higher frequency of falls. The association of mild hyponatremia and bone fracture is still unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine if mild hyponatremia is associated with increased risk of(More)
Azathioprine (AZA) is characterized by high interindividual differences in bioavailability and metabolization. The aim of the present study was to analyze, in patients treated with AZA for various immune system disorders, whether the variation in red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (deltaMCV) could be used as an indirect estimation of the level of the(More)
Extrarenal mechanisms are important in the defense against hyperkalemia. During a potassium load, cellular uptake is essential to avoid severe hyperkalemia. Liver and muscles represent the major buffering system, partially mediated by insulin, in the distribution of potassium between intracellular and extracellular fluids. To study the potential role of the(More)
In hyponatremia related to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), hypouricemia is explained primarily by the high uric acid clearance rate that results from the decrease in tubular uric acid reabsorption. This modification of tubular handling of uric acid is considered to be induced by the increase in the "effective vascular volume". This(More)
Increments in serum ferritin levels in adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) were reported to be higher than one could expect for a simple inflammatory state. When we analyzed the scores of 40 patients with various severe inflammatory diseases aside from AOSD, we recorded no serum ferritin values higher than 3,300 ng/ml (N less than 200 ng/ml). In 3 of 10(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Dilutional hyponatremia is a frequent complication of cirrhosis partly because of nonosmotic vasopressin release. No effective therapy exists for this complication. Therefore, we investigated the effects of VPA-985, an orally active vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, in patients with cirrhosis and dilutional hyponatremia. Primary endpoint(More)
OBJECTIVE The study objective was to determine the eventual consequences (falls, unsteadiness, and cognitive impairment) of mild chronic hyponatremia, which is generally considered as asymptomatic. METHODS In a case-control study, we focused on the incidence of falls among 122 patients (mean age 72+/-13 years) with asymptomatic chronic hyponatremia (mean(More)
Arginine-vasopressin is a hormone that plays an important part in circulatory and water homoeostasis. The three arginine-vasopressin-receptor subtypes--V1a, V1b, and V2--all belong to the large rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptor family. The vaptans are orally and intravenously active non-peptide vasopressin receptor antagonists that are in(More)