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Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. Hyponatraemia is present in 15–20 % of emergency admissions to hospital and occurs in up to 20 % of critically ill patients. Symptomatology may vary from subtle to severe or even life(More)
The effects of satavaptan (SR121463B), a novel long-acting orally active vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist, were investigated in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). In the first part of this randomized, double-blind study, 34 patients first were treated with satavaptan (versus placebo) for up to 5 d and(More)
BACKGROUND Mild hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte imbalance in the older population and has been shown to be associated with gait and attention deficits resulting in higher frequency of falls. The association of mild hyponatremia and bone fracture is still unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine if mild hyponatremia is associated with increased risk of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Dilutional hyponatremia is a frequent complication of cirrhosis partly because of nonosmotic vasopressin release. No effective therapy exists for this complication. Therefore, we investigated the effects of VPA-985, an orally active vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, in patients with cirrhosis and dilutional hyponatremia. Primary endpoint(More)
Patients with hyponatremia are exposed to major neurological complications. On the one hand hyponatremia itself produces brain edema, increased intracranial pressure which potentially leads to subsequent neuropathological sequelae or death. On the other hand excessive correction could be followed by development of brain demyelinating lesions (central(More)
Three cases of central nervous system complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections are reported. There were several atypical findings: the first patient presented with an acute disseminated encephalitis with normal cerebrospinal fluid and hypogammaglobulinaemia. The second patient presented with a left sixth nerve palsy followed six weeks later by(More)
Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a recently described genetic cause of hyponatremia in male infants. Whether this X-linked condition could be detected in the adult or also could affect women is unknown. A large five-generation family was identified in which the recently described arginine-vasopressin receptor type 2 (AVPR2)(More)
INTRODUCTION Hyponatremia in the intensive care unit (ICU) is most commonly related to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Fluid restriction is difficult to apply in these patients. We wanted to report the treatment of hyponatremia with urea in these patients. METHODS Two groups of patients are reported. The first one is represented(More)
Extrarenal mechanisms are important in the defense against hyperkalemia. During a potassium load, cellular uptake is essential to avoid severe hyperkalemia. Liver and muscles represent the major buffering system, partially mediated by insulin, in the distribution of potassium between intracellular and extracellular fluids. To study the potential role of the(More)