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The molecular origin of standard metabolic rate and thermogenesis in mammals is examined. It is pointed out that there are important differences and distinctions between the cellular reactions that 1) couple to oxygen consumption, 2) uncouple metabolism, 3) hydrolyze ATP, 4) control metabolic rate, 5) regulate metabolic rate, 6) produce heat, and 7)(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) reversibly inhibited oxygen consumption of brain synaptosomes. Inhibition was reversible, occurred at the level of cytochrome oxidase, and was apparently competitive with oxygen, with half-inhibition by 270 nM NO at oxygen concentrations around 145 microM and by 60 nM at around 30 microM O2. Isolated cytochrome oxidase was inhibited by(More)
Glia undergo inflammatory activation in most CNS pathologies and are capable of killing cocultured neurons. We investigated the mechanisms of this inflammatory neurodegeneration using a mixed culture of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes, either when the astrocytes were activated directly with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or(More)
Inflammatory neurodegeneration contributes to a wide variety of brain pathologies. A number of mechanisms by which inflammatory-activated microglia and astrocytes kill neurons have been identified in culture. These include: (1) acute activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) found in microglia, (2) expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase(More)
Both reversible and irreversible inhibition of mitochondrial respiration have been reported following the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by cells. Using J774 cells, we have studied the effect of long-term exposure to NO on different enzymes of the respiratory chain. Our results show that, although NO inhibits complex IV in a way that is always reversible,(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives inhibit mitochondrial respiration by a variety of means. Nanomolar concentrations of NO immediately, specifically and reversibly inhibit cytochrome oxidase in competition with oxygen, in isolated cytochrome oxidase, mitochondria, nerve terminals, cultured cells and tissues. Higher concentrations of NO and its(More)
We have seen that there is no simple answer to the question 'what controls respiration?' The answer varies with (a) the size of the system examined (mitochondria, cell or organ), (b) the conditions (rate of ATP use, level of hormonal stimulation), and (c) the particular organ examined. Of the various theories of control of respiration outlined in the(More)
Inflammation-activated glia are seen in many CNS pathologies and may kill neurons through the release of cytotoxic mediators, such as nitric oxide from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and possibly superoxide from NADPH oxidase (NOX). We set out to determine the relative role of these species in inducing neuronal death, and to test the dual-key hypothesis that(More)