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Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is usually a rare, highly pathogenic zoonotic disease, transmitted across the northern hemisphere between fox and rodent hosts. In China the first cases were described in 1965; however very few epidemiological studies have been undertaken since. Following identification in 1991 of a serious focus of human AE in south Gansu(More)
There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that malaria control can improve the health of the vulnerable and remove a major obstacle to their economic development, the Malaria Knowledge Programme of(More)
Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare and highly pathogenic helminthic zoonosis due to infection with the intermediate stage of the small fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasite transmission is restricted to northern latitudes, including central and north China, from where few clinical and no detailed community studies have been reported.(More)
CONTEXT Effective and affordable treatment is recommended for all cases of malaria within 24 h of the onset of illness. Most cases of "malaria" (ie, fever) are self-diagnosed and most treatments, and deaths, occur at home. The most ethical and cost-effective policy is to ensure that newer drug combinations are only used for true cases of malaria. Although(More)
Evidence on the impact of using diagnostic tests in community case management of febrile children is limited. This effectiveness trial conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda, compared a diagnostic and treatment package for malaria and pneumonia with presumptive treatment with anti-malarial drugs; artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). We enrolled(More)
The development of an effective malaria vaccine depends upon identification of antigens that are targets of protective immune responses. An immunoepidemiologic approach has been used to investigate the relationship between antibody responses to a defined region of the major merozoite surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum (PfMSP-1 19) and resistance to(More)
The community case management of malaria (CCMm) is now an established route for distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in rural areas, but the feasibility and acceptability of the approach through community medicine distributors (CMD) in urban areas has not been explored. It is estimated that in 15 years time 50% of the African(More)
Studies on the ecology of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and the transmission of malaria were undertaken in a high rainfall forested area in southern Sierra Leone. Anopheles gambiae s.s., identified by chromosomal techniques as the Forest form, was the only malaria vector in the study village. Surprisingly, rice fields or swamps were not favoured breeding places(More)
Using the all-night landing catch method (18:00-06:00) we showed, for Anopheles gambiae in Sierra Leone and A. punctulatus in Papua New Guinea, that parous females have a tendency to bite later than nulliparous ones. The biting habit of sporozoite-infected A. punctulatus was also investigated. The sporozoite rates for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax were(More)