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There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that malaria control can improve the health of the vulnerable and remove a major obstacle to their economic development, the Malaria Knowledge Programme of(More)
Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare and highly pathogenic helminthic zoonosis due to infection with the intermediate stage of the small fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasite transmission is restricted to northern latitudes, including central and north China, from where few clinical and no detailed community studies have been reported.(More)
Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is usually a rare, highly pathogenic zoonotic disease, transmitted across the northern hemisphere between fox and rodent hosts. In China the first cases were described in 1965; however very few epidemiological studies have been undertaken since. Following identification in 1991 of a serious focus of human AE in south Gansu(More)
This paper presents the results of an intervention study carried out as part of the activities of a District Health Management Team responsible for integrated primary health care delivery in a rural district in Ghana. The aim was to test the impact of a combination of improved information provision to patients and drug labeling on adherence to recommended(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the extent to which district health teams could reduce the burden of malaria, a continuing major cause of mortality and morbidity, in a situation where severe resource constraints existed and integrated care was provided. METHODS Antimalarial drugs were prepackaged into unit doses in an attempt to improve compliance with full courses(More)
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonotic helminthic disease that can mimic malignancy. In the 1970s, foci of the disease were found in central China. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of AE in humans in 2 districts of south Gansu Province, China, by use of ultrasound and Echinococcus(More)
BACKGROUND It is estimated that over 70% of patients with suspected malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, diagnose and manage their illness at home without referral to a formal health clinic. Of those patients who do attend a formal health clinic, malaria overdiagnosis rates are estimated to range between 30-70%. METHODS This paper details an observational(More)
The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in a cohort of over 900 nought to seven-year-old children living in a rural area of Sierra Leone was found to be approximately 61%, both before and after the rainy season. Plasmodium malariae rates measured in the same children were approximately 12%, and P. ovale rates averaged about 1%. Spleen rates averaged 44% for(More)
Studies on the ecology of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and the transmission of malaria were undertaken in a high rainfall forested area in southern Sierra Leone. Anopheles gambiae s.s., identified by chromosomal techniques as the Forest form, was the only malaria vector in the study village. Surprisingly, rice fields or swamps were not favoured breeding places(More)
The Republic of Yemen has the highest incidence of malaria in the Arabian Peninsula, yet little is known of its vectors or transmission dynamics. A 24-month study of the vectors and related epidemiological aspects of malaria transmission was conducted in two villages in the Taiz region in 2004–2005. Cross-sectional blood film surveys recorded an overall(More)