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There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that malaria control can improve the health of the vulnerable and remove a major obstacle to their economic development, the Malaria Knowledge Programme of(More)
Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare and highly pathogenic helminthic zoonosis due to infection with the intermediate stage of the small fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasite transmission is restricted to northern latitudes, including central and north China, from where few clinical and no detailed community studies have been reported.(More)
This paper presents the results of an intervention study carried out as part of the activities of a District Health Management Team responsible for integrated primary health care delivery in a rural district in Ghana. The aim was to test the impact of a combination of improved information provision to patients and drug labeling on adherence to recommended(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the extent to which district health teams could reduce the burden of malaria, a continuing major cause of mortality and morbidity, in a situation where severe resource constraints existed and integrated care was provided. METHODS Antimalarial drugs were prepackaged into unit doses in an attempt to improve compliance with full courses(More)
The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in a cohort of over 900 nought to seven-year-old children living in a rural area of Sierra Leone was found to be approximately 61%, both before and after the rainy season. Plasmodium malariae rates measured in the same children were approximately 12%, and P. ovale rates averaged about 1%. Spleen rates averaged 44% for(More)
The Republic of Yemen has the highest incidence of malaria in the Arabian Peninsula, yet little is known of its vectors or transmission dynamics. A 24-month study of the vectors and related epidemiological aspects of malaria transmission was conducted in two villages in the Taiz region in 2004–2005. Cross-sectional blood film surveys recorded an overall(More)
CONTEXT Effective and affordable treatment is recommended for all cases of malaria within 24 h of the onset of illness. Most cases of "malaria" (ie, fever) are self-diagnosed and most treatments, and deaths, occur at home. The most ethical and cost-effective policy is to ensure that newer drug combinations are only used for true cases of malaria. Although(More)
The development of an effective malaria vaccine depends upon identification of antigens that are targets of protective immune responses. An immunoepidemiologic approach has been used to investigate the relationship between antibody responses to a defined region of the major merozoite surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum (PfMSP-1 19) and resistance to(More)
Evidence on the impact of using diagnostic tests in community case management of febrile children is limited. This effectiveness trial conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda, compared a diagnostic and treatment package for malaria and pneumonia with presumptive treatment with anti-malarial drugs; artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). We enrolled(More)
Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is usually a rare, highly pathogenic zoonotic disease, transmitted across the northern hemisphere between fox and rodent hosts. In China the first cases were described in 1965; however very few epidemiological studies have been undertaken since. Following identification in 1991 of a serious focus of human AE in south Gansu(More)