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In the 3rd edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (2004) (GDWQ) the World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the use of risk assessment coupled with risk management for the control of water safety in drinking water supplies. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) provides a tool for estimating the disease-burden from pathogenic(More)
We recently reported the isolation of a unique subpopulation of human stromal cells from bone marrow (BM) termed marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells, capable of differentiating in vitro into mature-like cells from all three germ layers. The oxygen tension (pO2) in BM ranges from 1 to 7%, which prompted us to examine the role of pO2 in(More)
The presence of gap junctions between osteoblastic cells has been previously reported. For this study we used the rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106, which expresses the osteoblastic phenotype, as a model to characterize further the nature, physiology, and regulation of gap junctions. Northern blot analysis identified a 3.0-kilobase RNA species(More)
Osteoblastic cells in long-term culture undergo a phenotypic maturation process leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) production and bone nodule (BN) formation. Cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions (GJC) can be detected between osteoblastic cells within 24 h of plating. We evaluated, in long-term cultures of osteoblastic cells, the effect of(More)
Previously we showed that physiological levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) can increase the mineralization of extracellular matrix (ECM) by osteoblast-like cells in vitro. In this study, we assess the role of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJC) in the PTH-enhanced mineralization of ECM in MC3T3-E1 cells, a murine culture model of osteoblastic(More)
We have investigated signaling (cAMP) and anabolic responses (mineralization of extracellular matrix [ECM]) to parathyroid hormone (PTH) in long-term (30 days) cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells, a murine model of osteoblast differentiation. Expression of PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R) mRNA is detected early and remains relatively constant for 2 weeks(More)
A study of water quality variation in shallow protected springs in Kampala was undertaken over a 12-month period to assess the causes of microbiological contamination. The microbiological quality of water was assessed using thermotolerant coliforms and faecal streptococci. Sanitary inspections and hazard assessments were undertaken to identify faecal(More)
Vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Vascular repair, essential for tissue maintenance, is critically reduced during vascular disease and aging. Efficient vascular repair requires functional adult stem cells unimpaired by aging or mutation. One protein candidate for reducing stem cell?mediated vascular repair is progerin, an(More)
Water safety plans (WSPs) are promoted by the WHO as the most effective means of securing drinking water safety. To date most experience with WSPs has been within utility supplies, primarily in developed countries. There has been little documented experience of applying WSPs to small community-managed systems, particularly in developing countries. This(More)