Guy A. Howard

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We report here the isolation of a population of non-transformed pluripotent human cells from bone marrow after a unique expansion/selection procedure. This procedure was designed to provide conditions resembling the in vivo microenvironment that is home for the most-primitive stem cells. Marrow-adherent and -nonadherent cells were co-cultured on(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) residing in bone marrow (BM) are the progenitors for osteoblasts and for several other cell types. In humans, the age-related decrease in bone mass could reflect decreased osteoblasts secondary to an age-related loss of osteoprogenitors. To test this hypothesis, BM cells were isolated from vertebral bodies of thoracic and(More)
We recently reported the isolation of a unique subpopulation of human stromal cells from bone marrow (BM) termed marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells, capable of differentiating in vitro into mature-like cells from all three germ layers. The oxygen tension (pO2) in BM ranges from 1 to 7%, which prompted us to examine the role of pO2 in(More)
We have developed an in vitro system, using embryonic chicken tibiae grown in a serum-free medium, which exhibits simultaneous bone formation and resorption. Tibiae from 8-day embryos increased in mean (+/- SD) length (4.0 +/- 0.4 to 11.0 +/- 0.3 mm) and dry weight (0.30 +/- 0.04 to 0.84 +/- 0.04 mg) during 12 days in vitro. There was increased(More)
Previously we showed that physiological levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) can increase the mineralization of extracellular matrix (ECM) by osteoblast-like cells in vitro. In this study, we assess the role of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJC) in the PTH-enhanced mineralization of ECM in MC3T3-E1 cells, a murine culture model of osteoblastic(More)
Although 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] is considered the most biologically active vitamin D3 metabolite, the vitamin D3 prohormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], is metabolized into other forms, including 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3]. Herein we show that 24R,25(OH)2D3 is fundamental for osteoblastic differentiation of human(More)
The presence of gap junctions between osteoblastic cells has been previously reported. For this study we used the rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106, which expresses the osteoblastic phenotype, as a model to characterize further the nature, physiology, and regulation of gap junctions. Northern blot analysis identified a 3.0-kilobase RNA species(More)
BACKGROUND Immunosuppressant therapy is thought to be a major contributor to post-transplant bone disease. Histological data and serum parameters suggest that Cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment causes osteopenia as a result of an altered bone turnover, but the pathogenic mechanisms of this process remain unclear. We investigate if CsA affects cell turnover and(More)
The direct effects of ethanol on human bone cell proliferation and function were studied in vitro. Normal human osteoblasts from trabecular bone chips were prepared by collagenase digestion. Exposure of these osteoblasts to ethanol in concentrations of 0.05% to 1% for 22 hours induced a dose-dependent reduction in bone cell DNA synthesis as assessed by(More)
Osteoblasts and adipocytes are thought to differentiate from a common stromal progenitor cell. These two phenotypically mature cell types show a high degree of plasticity, which can be observed when cells are grown under specific culture conditions. Gap junctions are abundant among osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro, whereas they are down-regulated(More)