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Inhibition of serotonergic raphe neurons is mediated by somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, which may be increased in depressed patients. We report an association of the C(-1019)G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism with major depression and suicide in separate cohorts. In depressed patients, the homozygous G(-1019) allele was enriched twofold versus controls (p(More)
Maternal care influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the rat through epigenetic programming of glucocorticoid receptor expression. In humans, childhood abuse alters HPA stress responses and increases the risk of suicide. We examined epigenetic differences in a neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) promoter between postmortem(More)
Although it is known that the methylation of DNA in 5' promoters suppresses gene expression, the role of DNA methylation in gene bodies is unclear. In mammals, tissue- and cell type-specific methylation is present in a small percentage of 5' CpG island (CGI) promoters, whereas a far greater proportion occurs across gene bodies, coinciding with highly(More)
Genome scans of bipolar disorder (BPD) have not produced consistent evidence for linkage. The rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was applied to 18 BPD genome scan data sets in an effort to identify regions with significant support for linkage in the combined data. The two primary analyses considered available linkage data for "very narrow"(More)
The different serotonin (5-HT) receptors, including the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), are excellent candidate genes for suicide and suicidal behavior, and thus, they have been investigated in a large number of allelic association studies. The individual results of these studies have been inconsistent and definite conclusions are difficult to establish. A(More)
BACKGROUND Impulsivity is a personality trait thought to be linked to suicide. Yet, not all suicides are highly impulsive. We aimed to better understand clinical, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of the association between suicide and impulsive behavior. METHODS One hundred sixty four suicide cases with impulsivity scores based on the Barratt(More)
BACKGROUND It is well known that most suicide cases meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder. However, rates of specific disorders vary considerably between studies and little information is known about gender and geographic differences. This study provides overall rates of total and specific psychiatric disorders in suicide completers and presents evidence(More)
OBJECTIVE Up to 15% of depression patients eventually present with treatment-resistant or refractory depression (TRD), a condition that causes significant social and economic burdens. Our paper aims to summarize the current medical literature on the conceptual and methodologic issues involved in the definition, assessment, and staging of TRD. METHOD We(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that alterations in expression of genes, including those which regulate neural and structural plasticity, may be crucial in the pathogenesis of depression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are newly discovered regulators of gene expression that have recently been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including neuropsychiatric(More)
The prefrontal cortex is believed to play a major role in depression and suicidal behavior through regulation of cognition, memory, recognition of emotion, and anxiety-like states, with numerous post-mortem studies documenting a prefrontal serotonergic dysregulation considered to be characteristic of depressive psychopathology. This study was carried out to(More)