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Inhibition of serotonergic raphe neurons is mediated by somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, which may be increased in depressed patients. We report an association of the C(-1019)G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism with major depression and suicide in separate cohorts. In depressed patients, the homozygous G(-1019) allele was enriched twofold versus controls (p(More)
Maternal care influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the rat through epigenetic programming of glucocorticoid receptor expression. In humans, childhood abuse alters HPA stress responses and increases the risk of suicide. We examined epigenetic differences in a neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) promoter between postmortem(More)
Although it is known that the methylation of DNA in 5' promoters suppresses gene expression, the role of DNA methylation in gene bodies is unclear. In mammals, tissue- and cell type-specific methylation is present in a small percentage of 5' CpG island (CGI) promoters, whereas a far greater proportion occurs across gene bodies, coinciding with highly(More)
Genome scans of bipolar disorder (BPD) have not produced consistent evidence for linkage. The rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was applied to 18 BPD genome scan data sets in an effort to identify regions with significant support for linkage in the combined data. The two primary analyses considered available linkage data for "very narrow"(More)
The prefrontal cortex is believed to play a major role in depression and suicidal behavior through regulation of cognition, memory, recognition of emotion, and anxiety-like states, with numerous post-mortem studies documenting a prefrontal serotonergic dysregulation considered to be characteristic of depressive psychopathology. This study was carried out to(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that alterations in expression of genes, including those which regulate neural and structural plasticity, may be crucial in the pathogenesis of depression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are newly discovered regulators of gene expression that have recently been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including neuropsychiatric(More)
Genetic mapping studies in bipolar disorder (BD) have been hampered by the unclear boundaries of the phenotypic spectrum, and possibly, by the complexity of the underlying genetic mechanisms, and heterogeneity. Among the suggested approaches to circumvent these problems, a pharmacogenetic strategy has been increasingly proposed. Several studies have(More)
The limbic system has consistently been associated with the control of emotions and with mood disorders. The goal of this study was to identify new molecular targets associated with suicide and with major depression using oligonucleotide microarrays in the limbic system (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate gryus (BA24) and posterior cingulate gyrus(More)
BACKGROUND Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been implicated in the mechanism of antidepressant action, and neurotrophic factors can mediate the neurogenic changes underlying these effects. The neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is involved in many aspects of brain development, from cell fate determination to neuronal maturation. However, nothing is(More)
OBJECTIVE Up to 15% of depression patients eventually present with treatment-resistant or refractory depression (TRD), a condition that causes significant social and economic burdens. Our paper aims to summarize the current medical literature on the conceptual and methodologic issues involved in the definition, assessment, and staging of TRD. METHOD We(More)