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We have previously demonstrated behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression using cyclosporin A as an unconditioned stimulus and saccharin as a conditioned stimulus. In the current study, we examined the central processing of this phenomenon generating excitotoxic lesions before and after acquisition to discriminate between learning and memory processes.(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists such as exendin-4 (Ex-4) affect eating and metabolism and are potential candidates for treating obesity and type II diabetes. In the present study, we tested whether vagal afferents mediate the eating-inhibitory and avoidance-inducing effects of Ex-4. Subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) blunted the(More)
The amygdala, a group of nuclei located in the medial temporal lobe, is a key limbic structure involved in mood regulation, associative learning, and modulation of cognitive functions. Functional neuroanatomical studies suggest that this brain region plays also an important role in the central integration of afferent signals from the peripheral immune(More)
Recent data suggest that the human body is not such a neatly self-sufficient island after all. It is more like a super-complex ecosystem containing trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms that inhabit all our surfaces; skin, mouth, sexual organs, and specially intestines. It has recently become evident that such microbiota, specifically within the(More)
The ability to associate physiological changes with a specific flavor was most likely acquired during evolution as an adaptive strategy aimed at protecting the organism while preparing it for danger. The behaviorally conditioned or learned immune response is an exquisite example of the bidirectional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and(More)
The use of placebo may have accompanied healing and medical practices since their origins (Plato; Charmides, 155-156). Recent experimental data indicate that we would be well advised to further consider placebo effects in future therapeutic strategies, with a better knowledge of their potency, psychological basis and underlying neurobiological mechanisms.(More)
Neuro-immune interactions are widely manifested in animal physiology. Since immunity competes for energy with other physiological functions, it is subject to a circadian trade-off between other energy-demanding processes, such as neural activity, locomotion and thermoregulation. When immunity is challenged, this trade-off is tilted to an adaptive energy(More)
Like other physiological responses, immune functions are the subject of behavioural conditioning. Conditioned immunosuppression can be induced by contingently pairing a novel taste with an injection of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) in an associative learning paradigm. This learned immunosuppression is centrally mediated by the insular cortex(More)
During the last 30 years of psychoneuroimmunology research the intense bi-directional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system has been demonstrated in studies on the interaction between the nervous-endocrine-immune systems. One of the most intriguing examples of such interaction is the capability of the CNS to associate(More)
The neurotransmitter noradrenaline (NA) plays a pivotal role in immune regulation. Here we used the selective neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) to investigate the impact of central NA depletion on cytokine production by splenic monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Intraperitoneal administration of DSP-4 in adult rats induced a(More)