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DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in B lymphocytes arise stochastically during replication or as a result of targeted DNA damage by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Here we identify recurrent, early replicating, and AID-independent DNA lesions, termed early replication fragile sites (ERFSs), by genome-wide localization of DNA repair proteins in B(More)
Transcription factors and DNA regulatory binding motifs are fundamental components of the gene regulatory network. Here, by using genome-wide binding profiling, we show extensive occupancy of transcription factors of myogenesis (MyoD and Myogenin) at extragenic enhancer regions coinciding with RNA synthesis (i.e., eRNA). In particular, multiple regions were(More)
The extension of the PEVK segment of the giant elastic protein titin is a key event in the elastic response of striated muscle to passive stretch. PEVK behaves mechanically as an entropic spring and is thought to be a random coil. cDNA sequencing of human fetal skeletal PEVK reveals a modular motif with tandem repeats of modules averaging 28 residues and(More)
The richness of proline sequences in titins qualifies these giant proteins as the largest source of intrinsically disordered structures in nature. An extensive search and analysis for Src homology domain 3 (SH3) ligand motifs revealed a myriad of broadly distributed SH3 ligand motifs, with the highest density in the PEVK segments of human titin. Besides the(More)
Stem cells undergo a shift in metabolic substrate utilization during specification and/or differentiation, a process that has been termed metabolic reprogramming. Here, we report that during the transition from quiescence to proliferation, skeletal muscle stem cells experience a metabolic switch from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis. This reprogramming of(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and STAT6 are key factors in the specification of helper T cells; however, their direct roles in driving differentiation are not well understood. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and massive parallel sequencing, we quantitated the full complement of STAT-bound genes, concurrently assessing global(More)
Histone chaperones affect chromatin structure and gene expression through interaction with histones and RNA polymerase II (PolII). Here, we report that the histone chaperone Spt6 counteracts H3K27me3, an epigenetic mark deposited by the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and associated with transcriptional repression. By regulating proper engagement and(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful means of identifying genes with disease-associated common variants, but they are not well-suited to detecting genes with disease-associated rare and low-frequency variants. In the current study of Behçet disease (BD), nonsynonymous variants (NSVs) identified by deep exonic resequencing of 10 genes found(More)
The giant protein titin spans half of the sarcomere length and anchors the myosin thick filament to the Z-line of skeletal and cardiac muscles. The passive elasticity of muscle at a physiological range of stretch arises primarily from the extension of the PEVK segment, which is a polyampholyte with dense and alternating-charged clusters. Force spectroscopy(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-27 signal through a shared receptor subunit and employ the same downstream STAT transcription proteins, but yet are ascribed unique and overlapping functions. To evaluate the specificity and redundancy for these cytokines, we quantified their global transcriptomic changes and determined the relative contributions of STAT1 and(More)