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We describe a model of invariant visual object recognition in the brain that incorporates feedback biasing effects of top-down attentional mechanisms on a hierarchically organized set of visual cortical areas with convergent forward connectivity, reciprocal feedback connections, and local intra-area competition. The model displays space-based and(More)
Cognitive behaviour requires complex context-dependent processing of information that emerges from the links between attentional perceptual processes, working memory and reward-based evaluation of the performed actions. We describe a computational neuroscience theoretical framework which shows how an attentional state held in a short term memory in the(More)
A broad body of experimental work has demonstrated that apparently spontaneous brain activity is not random. At the level of large-scale neural systems, as measured with functional MRI (fMRI), this ongoing activity reflects the organization of a series of highly coherent functional networks. These so-called resting-state networks (RSNs) closely relate to(More)
Preface The relatively random spiking times of individual neurons produce a source of noise in the brain. The aim of this book is to consider the effects of this and other noise on brain processing. We show that in cortical networks this noise can be an advantage, for it leads to probabilistic behaviour that is advantageous in decision-making, by preventing(More)
Recent neurophysiological experiments have led to a promising "biased competition hypothesis" of the neural basis of attention. According to this hypothesis, attention appears as a sometimes nonlinear property that results from a top-down biasing effect that influences the competitive and cooperative interactions that work both within cortical areas and(More)
A growing body of neuroimaging research has documented that, in the absence of an explicit task, the brain shows temporally coherent activity. This so-called "resting state" activity or, more explicitly, the default-mode network, has been associated with daydreaming, free association, stream of consciousness, or inner rehearsal in humans, but similar(More)
Spatio-temporally organized low-frequency fluctuations (<0.1 Hz), observed in BOLD fMRI signal during rest, suggest the existence of underlying network dynamics that emerge spontaneously from intrinsic brain processes. Furthermore, significant correlations between distinct anatomical regions-or functional connectivity (FC)-have led to the identification of(More)
Cognitive and emotional flexibility involve a coordinated interaction between working memory, attention, reward expectations, and the evaluation of rewards and punishers so that behaviour can be changed if necessary. We describe a model at the integrate-and-fire neuronal level of the synaptic and spiking mechanisms which can hold an expectation of a reward(More)
Resting-state networks (RSNs), which have become a main focus in neuroimaging research, can be best simulated by large-scale cortical models in which networks teeter on the edge of instability. In this state, the functional networks are in a low firing stable state while they are continuously pulled towards multiple other configurations. Small extrinsic(More)