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  • G Barja
  • 1999
Studies in heart and nonsynaptic brain mitochondria from two mammals and three birds show that complex I generates oxygen radicals in heart and nonsynaptic brain mitochondria in States 4 and 3, whereas complex III does it only in heart mitochondria and only in State 4. The increase in oxygen consumption during the State 4 to 3 transition is not accompanied(More)
The effect of caloric restriction (CR) (40%) on the rates of mitochondrial H 2 O 2 production and oxygen consumption and oxidative damage to nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied for short-term (6-wk) and long-term (1-year) periods in the heart of young and old rats. Short-term CR did not change any of the parameters measured.(More)
DNA damage is considered of paramount importance in aging. Among causes of this damage, free radical attack, particularly from mitochondrial origin, is receiving special attention. If oxidative damage to DNA is involved in aging, long-lived animals (which age slowly) should show lower levels of markers of this kind of damage than short-lived ones. However,(More)
The present state of the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging is reviewed. Available studies do not support the hypothesis that antioxidants control the rate of aging because: (a) they correlate inversely with maximum longevity in vertebrates, and (b) increasing their concentration by different methods does not increase maximum lifespan. On the other(More)
Oxygen free radicals (ROS) of mitochondrial origin seem to be involved in aging. Whereas in other tissues complexes I or III of the respiratory chain contain the ROS generators, in this study we find that rat liver mitochondria generate oxygen radicals at complexes I, II, and III. Short-term (6 weeks) caloric restriction significantly decreased H2O2(More)
Free radical production and leak of brain nonsynaptic mitochondria were higher with pyruvate/malate than with succinate in rats and pigeons. Rotenone, antimycin A, and myxothiazol maximally stimulated free radical production with pyruvate/malate but not with succinate. Simultaneous treatment with myxothiazol plus antimycin A did not decrease the stimulated(More)
  • G Barja
  • 1998
The mitochondrial rate of oxygen radical (ROS) production is negatively correlated with maximum life span potential (MLSP) in mammals following the rate of living theory. In order to know if this relationship is more than circumstantial, homeothermic vertebrates with MLSP different from that predicted by the body size and metabolic rate of the majority of(More)
The relationship of oxidative stress with maximum life span (MLSP) in different vertebrate species is reviewed. In all animal groups the endogenous levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues negatively correlate with MLSP and the most longevous animals studied in each group, pigeon or man, show the minimum levels of antioxidants. A(More)
Aging is characterized by decrements in maximum function and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, which are best observed in organs such as the brain that contain post-mitotic cells. Oxygen radicals are increasingly considered responsible for part of these aging changes. Comparative studies of animals with different aging rates have shown that the(More)
  • Gustavo Barja
  • 2004
Oxygen is toxic to aerobic animals because it is univalently reduced inside cells to oxygen free radicals. Studies dealing with the relationship between oxidative stress and aging in different vertebrate species and in caloric-restricted rodents are discussed in this review. Healthy tissues mainly produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at mitochondria. These(More)