Gustav Markkula

Learn More
Driver assistance systems and electronics (e.g. navigators, cell phones, etc.) steal increasing amounts of driver attention. Therefore, the vehicle industry is striving to build a driving environment where input–output devices are smartly scheduled, allowing sufficient time for the driver to focus attention on the surrounding traffic. To enable a smart(More)
Driver errors related to visual and cognitive distraction were studied in the context of the Lane Change Test (LCT). New performance metrics were developed in order to capture the specific effects of visual and cognitive distraction. In line with previous research, it was found that the two types of distraction impaired driving in different ways. Visual,(More)
OBJECTIVE This article provides a review of recent models of driver behavior in on-road collision situations. BACKGROUND In efforts to improve traffic safety, computer simulation of accident situations holds promise as a valuable tool, for both academia and industry. However, to ensure the validity of simulations, models are needed that accurately capture(More)
Two experiments were carried out in a moving-base simulator, in which truck drivers of varying experience levels encountered a rear-end collision scenario on a low-friction road surface, with and without an electronic stability control (ESC) system. In the first experiment, the drivers experienced one instance of the rear-end scenario unexpectedly, and then(More)
Driver braking behavior was analyzed using time-series recordings from naturalistic rear-end conflicts (116 crashes and 241 near-crashes), including events with and without visual distraction among drivers of cars, heavy trucks, and buses. A simple piecewise linear model could be successfully fitted, per event, to the observed driver decelerations, allowing(More)
Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious(More)